Surgimiento de un fascismo de “nuevo tipo” (I)

94
Manifestación en contra del presidente de Brasil, Jair Bolsonaro.

Nelson Fajardo

Señalamos al fascismo de “nuevo Tipo”, para llamar la atención sobre las posibilidades, que tiene esta corriente ideológica y política, de mostrarse sin guardar las diferencias que las identifican como tal y que requieren ser tenidas en cuenta; no solo como ejercicio académico sino como expresión de nuevas fuerzas que pueden estar de moda en la actualidad. Y planteamos el interés, porque se percibe en las condiciones de vida mundiales, un ambiente supremamente cargado de perversidades y delitos de todo tipo, que llevan fácilmente a recordar una sociedad decadente y degradada.

Es por ello que nos guiamos por los Estudios de Lenin, quien logra armar sus propias conclusiones sobre la caracterización de la sociedad; para desarrollar sus criterios sobre el capitalismo que tuvo que vivir. Lo fundamental fue la introducción del concepto de imperialismo.

Imperialismo y fascismo

Ese capitalismo lo denominó fase superior del sistema capitalista; cuyas cinco características son: (1) Las fusiones de las diversas formas de capital, pero ante todo capital industrial con capital bancario, dando cuenta de la actual formación del capital financiero, como la forma superior del dominio del capital. En segundo lugar (2), tenemos la exportación de capitales, con el propósito de reducir los costos de producción y ampliar sus deseos monopólicos y competitivos, así se tenga que incurrir en la masacre de miles y millones de seres humanos, para ello surgió el fascismo, como forma de control de amplios contingentes de masas al servicio del gran capital. Una tercera característica (3), es la conformación de los monopolios, producto de las fusiones y la competencia monopólica entre los capitales en proceso de monopolización; esos dos componentes, fusiones y competencias, de la conformación del capital contemporáneo, o, capital financiero tendrá efectos y grandes cambios sobre la estructura política, cultural, social y económica de las clases sociales; pues cada vez hay menos burgueses y crece el proletariado, en un proceso, en el que dicho fenómeno va extendiéndose hacia sectores sociales crecientemente proletarizados, pero escasamente organizados.

La cuarta característica (4), es el capitalismo que se divide entre países ricos, con una alta capacidad de formación de plusvalía y acumulación de capitales, rebasa las fronteras nacionales y procura la defensa de la integración imperialista. Se trata de la creación de una estructura económica con fuertes contradicciones interimperialistas, que después de finalizada la Segunda Guerra Mundial, permanecen abiertas para alimentar la potencia y doblegar los países menos desarrollados. De ahí, se desprende la conformación de la quinta característica (5), cuya expresión da cuenta que la principal fuerza del sistema imperialista son los Estados Unidos de América (USA), quien procura manejar casi el 50% de todas las inversiones en el extranjero.

Precisamente, ese papel hegemónico, es el que permite que el mal llamado “Estado social de derecho”, sea una falsedad que sirve a la burguesía para encubrir lo que quiere de verdad: el control de las crisis de acumulación, ajuste al modelo económico en crisis mundial, por sobre acumulación o desacumulación, que al entrar en situación prolongada, busca su salida en las guerras, tales como, la Guerra en Corea (25 de junio de 1950 al 27 de julio 1953), antecedida por una Gran Depresión Económica Mundial (1929), que convirtió su territorio, hasta nuestros días, con dos Coreas, la guerra en Vietnam (1965 a 1973), etc.

Es en ese contexto, que se prepara y desarrolla la Segunda Guerra Mundial, iniciada con la agresión alemana al territorio polaco en 1941 y el inicio de una ofensiva alemana que termina en el triunfo de la Unión Soviética a través del Ejército Rojo en la batalla de Petrogrado, que inicia con la derrota del ejército hitleriano en el año de 1945. Con anterioridad, en 1923 el desempleo era masivo, acompañado de una alta inflación. Y es en ese mismo año, cuando el gobierno alemán decide plantear una moratoria para satisfacer las reparaciones de los adversarios; los gobiernos de Francia, Bélgica e Italia respondieron enviando tropas para ocupar la zona del Rin en enero de ese año.

Hitler, desarrolla luego toda una serie de maniobras de manipulación sobre el pueblo y después de ganar el poder central, invadía a Polonia el 1 de septiembre de 1939 a las 4:45 am; acción que dará inicios a la guerra.

Ética, moral y política

La ética, moral y la política son conceptos muy ligados, porque sus contenidos apuntan a un juego que parte de la ética entendida como los fundamentos, las bases sobre las que se levanta lo esencial del comportamiento social de los seres humanos. Mientras que la moral tiene ver con la plataforma que determina esas manifestaciones. Y la política es el camino más acertado de expresión de la ética y la moral; sin dejar su espacio propio.

Los tres conceptos, ética, moral y política conforman una tríada que juega con relaciones favorables y desfavorables en la comunicación social que se entabla entre los seres humanos, y, en esa práctica comunicativa, forma hábitos, costumbres y tradiciones que han dado personalidad. El propósito es abordar una temática, que ha sido ocultada, maltratada; pero que hoy exige dar respuesta ante la creciente descomposición por la que atraviesan los seres humanos.

En esta dirección, trataremos los conceptos; para luego transitar a la dialéctica entre los entrelazamientos y las diferencias de los tres conceptos. Posteriormente, trataremos los actos de como un espacio de la dialéctica supremamente significativo para señalar la dinámica que asumen estos tres conceptos en movimiento permanente, pero en el marco de lo político, entendido como la lucha permanente de los seres humanos por el poder.

Han pasado más de tres décadas (1991 a 2018) desde la extinción del valioso Campo Socialista Soviético (1917 a 1991). Espacios temporales que permitieron vivir dos momentos históricos complejos y contradictorios; el primero, y, en el cual nos encontramos todavía, de ascenso y hegemonía contrarrevolucionaria. Y el segundo, de un amplio auge revolucionario, ochenta y cuatro años; es decir, cerca de tres cuartos de siglo del siglo XX

En el segundo momento vivimos un esplendoroso auge revolucionario, que impregnó varias generaciones, o sea, ochenta y cuatro años cumplidos. A este ejercicio científico hecho desde los grandes genios de la economía nacional, Juan José Echeverría, Leonardo Villar y Mauricio Cárdenas, concluyen afirmando que “para explicar el descenso de la tasa de crecimiento potencial, enfatiza el papel de las dinámicas de la población y el mercado laboral: la disminución en el aumento de la población, de la que está en edad de trabajar y de la activa, así como un descenso menos rápido del desempleo estructural con aspecto a los quince años anteriores”.

La pregunta que responderemos en la segunda parte, es en esencia la siguiente: ¿Qué vivimos durante estos nuevos tiempos en lo moral y en lo político, ante un evidente ascenso del fascismo?

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