¿Socavón o torre de Babel?

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La represa sigue generando zozobra sobre la población aledaña a Ituango. Foto Panorama de San Jorge.

Hidroituango, inestable y con diversas irregularidades, sigue generando alertas y dudas sobre los nuevos hallazgos y sus salidas

Carolina Tejada
@carolltejada 

Desde inicios de año pasado las alertas por una posible tragedia ambiental y social de amplias magnitudes se dio a conocer desde la organización Ríos Vivos, sin que las autoridades y las directivas del megaproyecto de Hidroituango atendieran el llamado.

Es sólo hasta el mes de mayo que las mismas entidades locales y departamentales, así como las directivas de las Empresas Públicas de Medellín, dieron un parte rojo, una alerta sobre el megaproyecto ante la evidencia del desplome del mismo.

Las más afectados serían las poblaciones aledañas, quienes habitan y desarrollan sus actividades comerciales y laborales río abajo de 17 municipios. Sin embargo, la gran represa del megaproyecto se vino abajo, el desafío de la naturaleza quedó registrado con terror en algunos vídeos realizados por los mismos trabajadores del megaproyecto. Las aguas arrasaron con lo que encontraban a su paso, las comunidades, más de 7 mil personas principalmente de Valdivia, se vieron forzadas al desplazamiento, abandonando sus viviendas, animales y enseres; otras 25.000 personas también se vieron afectadas. Los daños fueron incalculables sobre la naturaleza y sus recursos. “La naturaleza es sabia, la naturaleza no se desafía” se repetía la gente una y otra vez, mientras se acusaba a las EPM como los principales responsables de los hechos.

La mezquindad del megaproyecto

Un par de meses después de lo ocurrido y ante la presión para que las autoridades competentes investigaran los responsables de los hechos, la Contraloría General de la República presentó los resultados de una auditoría de cumplimiento que realizó sobre el proyecto Hidroituango. En esa auditoría se evidenció que, se le violó el derecho a la consulta previa a las comunidades indígenas de Orobajo y Barbacoas, que habitan en la zona.

Igualmente, se formularon 35 hallazgos de los cuales 29 tuvieron presunta incidencia disciplinaria y los ocho restantes, penal.  Lo que demostró la existencia de varias incongruencias en la licencia ambiental, y que tenían que ver con fallas geológicas, derrumbes constates sobre la zona etc. situación que también se había anunciado por las mismas comunidades desde los estudios de prefactibilidad y que hoy siguen siendo denunciados por la organización Ríos Vivos, quien desde siempre y con la preocupación por las consecuencias ambientales y sobre la población que tenía el avance del megaproyecto, se ha opuesto al mismo.

En el informe de la Contraloría, también se da a conocer que a la licencia ambiental se le hicieron 12 modificaciones, lo que significa que el proyecto en construcción es diferente al que finalmente se licenció. Motivo por el cual esta entidad señala que EPM le ocultó información a la Autoridad Nacional de Licencias Ambientales, ANLA, y que dicho megaproyecto avanzó en las obras sin tener una la licencia que cumpliera con los requerimientos óptimos. Y, por otro lado, también se concluyó que la gestión de la misma ANLA, no solo había sido insuficiente, sino que además “se le salió de control”, pues desde hacía ocho años venía abriendo procesos sancionatorios que no habían sido fallados por inactividad procesal.

Nueva alerta sin muchas claridades técnicas

Desde diciembre del año pasado las autoridades departamentales y municipales conocían de los hallazgos de una nueva situación que ponía en riesgo a la población, pero solo hasta el diez de enero y por medio de una rueda de prensa, las EPM, el gobernador de Antioquia, el alcalde de Medellín entre otros, dan a conocer públicamente lo que serían los detalles de dicho hallazgo.

Según afirmaron, se trata de un socavón al interior de la montaña de Hidroituango. Con un socavón se refieren, según términos de ingeniería, a una excavación en roca con una sola entrada desde superficie, de una baja pendiente y una geometría tal que permite el libre tránsito de personal y/o maquinarias. El interrogante que genera este supuesto nuevo hallazgo es, si para diciembre se conocen los dichosos hallazgos, ¿tendrían alguna relación con lo que fueron las manifestaciones de lo que ocurrió en superficie en mayo del 2018?

Para el docente Luis Alberto Arias López de la facultad de ciencias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, con sede Medellín, los llamados hallazgos, las “Grietas en las excavaciones en roca de la margen derecha, los deslizamientos en la parte alta de la margen derecha y ahora las grietas identificadas en profundidad son todos fenómenos que podrían estar causalmente relacionados”. Y, en ese mismo orden de ideas reitera el docente, si la preocupación tal y como han asegurado desde el gobernador en adelante es “la población de aguas abajo del sitio de presa (…) la existencia o ausencia de relación causal entre estos fenómenos debería ocupar la atención del equipo profesional”.

Estos interrogantes surgen en la medida en que el mismo equipo técnico que conoce del problema desde el mes de diciembre, afirma desconocer la magnitud de los “hallazgos”, los cuales se calculan, en el caso del denominado “socavón” de 20 a 40 metros. Para muchos, luego de 15 días de los hallazgos, las respuestas sobre la gravedad y sobre el asunto deberían de ser científica y técnicamente más claras, más aún cuando se trata de un proyecto geotécnico cuyas inconsistencias en el desarrollo del proyecto y antecedentes frente a su capacidad y fortaleza técnica es muy cuestionable.

Las salidas a una posible catástrofe

El cierre de las compuertas de los túneles de captación 1 y 2 a partir de un mecanismo de control, es una de las salidas planteadas por EPM. Sin embargo, y como analiza el docente Arias, este proceso implicaría el ascenso del nivel de las aguas en la represa. Lo cual genera el interrogante que el mismo docente plantea, para quienes están más cercanos al proyecto, “el ascenso del nivel de las aguas conlleva un incremento en la presión de poros en los macizos laterales. ¿Este incremento es significativo o no? ¿Podrían constituir un factor causal o un factor desencadenante de inestabilidad en un macizo que ha mostrado evidencias claras de inestabilidad?

En términos generales, el miedo existente tal y como lo expresa Arias es, si se abren las compuertas, no se tiene la claridad de que no ocurra que, la represa con su nivel de inestabilidad comprobada, se desborde, ampliando las magnitudes de lo ya sucedido en mayo. En todo caso, los supuestos hallazgos y las soluciones planteadas hasta el momento no gozan de las garantías para cumplir el objetivo que públicamente han vociferado en medios los defensores de Hidrohituango, primero la gente, pues sigue ausente una valoración sólida de la realidad del megaproyecto y dichas salidas solo obedecen a defender la continuidad del mismo.

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