La educación aún sin dinero

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Profesores de ASPU marcharon en Bogotá el pasado 10 de octubre. Foto J.C.H.

Luego de más de una semana de iniciadas las protestas de la comunidad educativa para reclamar recursos para la inversión y el funcionamiento de la educación, no hay respuestas satisfactorias

Juan Carlos Hurtado Fonseca
@Aurelianolatino

“500 mil millones de pesos tendría ya el Gobierno nacional para invertir en la educación pública superior el año entrante, sumado al presupuesto de 41 billones de pesos que se destinará para todo el sector”, dijo la ministra de Educación, María Victoria Angulo, a un medio de comunicación un día antes de las movilizaciones del pasado 10 de octubre.

“Estamos mirando cómo sumar fuentes de ingresos, por ejemplo, de regalías, además de revisar todas las propuestas para que se materialice en el plan de desarrollo, pero todo acorde a la situación fiscal del país que todos conocen”.

María Victoria Angulo, señaló que los 3,2 billones de pesos que tanto alumnos como rectores de universidades han insistido en que se necesitan, no podrán conseguirse a corto plazo, pero sí de manera gradual para invertirse en infraestructura y formación docente, entre otras cosas.

María Victoria Angulo.

“En un año no es viable decir que se van a entregar 3,2 billones de pesos, pero sí hay una promesa certera para el 2019 y de ahí un aumento gradual para los años venideros, dando mayores recursos no solo a la base sino a la inversión de las universidades”, explicó la Ministra.

Al finalizar su mensaje indicó: “Nosotros somos respetuosos de la protesta pacífica, entendemos la importancia de la educación superior pública y estamos abiertos al diálogo con todos los actores. Ya tenemos los recursos para el año 2019”.

No obstante, al siguiente día miles de estudiantes, trabajadores y profesores de las 32 universidades públicas de todo el país; del Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, SENA; a quienes se sumaron docentes de primaria y secundaria; y padres de familia, colmaron las calles de las principales ciudades, en lo que se configura como el inicio de una serie de protestas contra el gobierno de Iván Duque, en esta oportunidad, para exigir presupuesto y poder culminar el presente año académico, aunque también para 2019.

La respuesta inmediata a las protestas estuvo a cargo del propio Duque, quien en alocución televisada argumentó: “Hemos logrado, en un trabajo exhaustivo con el Congreso de la República, con el Ministerio de Hacienda, con el Ministerio de Educación, que los recursos de inversión para el sector superen los 4 billones de pesos, la cifra más alta de inversión que se haya visto en el sector educativo”.

Según el Jefe de Estado, los recursos adicionales logrados por su administración para el sector educativo se invertirán en mejorar cobertura y calidad, fortalecer el programa de alimentación escolar, trabajar por la atención integral a la primera infancia, avanzar con gradualidad en ampliar la jornada académica y aumentar significativamente la doble titulación con el apoyo del Sena.

Siguen las asambleas

Sin embargo, para la comunidad educativa en el discurso gubernamental no hay soluciones y al siguiente fin de semana de las primeras movilizaciones la Asociación Sindical de Profesores Universitarios, ASPU, coprotagonista de las manifestaciones, dijo que no había recibido notificación alguna por parte del Gobierno para reunirse a discutir. Esta organización ha estado en asambleas permanentes en todo el país y abierta a dialogar.

Para su presidente, Pedro Hernán­dez: “El tema es fácil de resolver porque por la reforma tributaria de 2016 o Ley 1819, mínimo están entrándole al Gobierno nacional, con destino específico a las universidades públicas, un billón quinientos mil millones de pesos. Entonces, no entendemos por qué dicen que no hay plata”.

Y es que el presupuesto requerido por las universidades públicas para terminar actividades académicas y administrativas o el cumplimiento de sus ejes misionales como formación, investigación y proyección social en 2018, es de 500 mil millones de pesos; que no son los mismos que anuncia la jefe de la cartera educativa, pues esos son para el siguiente año.

Para 2019, esta organización exige que esos 500 mil millones hagan parte de la base presupuestal y por la crisis estructural, las universidades, las instituciones públicas de educación superior y el SENA requieren más de 4 billones de pesos adicionales. Es decir, con esto se completarían siete billones de pesos para cubrir la responsabilidad del Estado con la educación de los colombianos.

De esta cantidad las universidades tendrían un poco menos de tres billones. “Con esto se resolvería el problema financiero estructural, más un programa de financiación de la inversión”, asegura Hernández quien a su vez plantea que aún no se ha discutido el impacto de la reforma tributaria en el ingreso de los profesores.

“Aunque ese presupuesto resolverá el pago de nómina, otros recursos de funcionamiento, pero también formalizar el 70% de los profesores que está actualmente tercerizado”, lo que dejaría plantas profesorales con mejores condiciones laborales, que a su vez redundará en la calidad de la educación.

Sin dinero no hay calidad

Pero, ¿por qué la vinculación directa de los docentes genera mejores niveles educativos? Solo en la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional el 80% de los profesores son ocasionales o catedráticos y el 20% de planta, y hay que tener en cuenta que esta última está congelada desde 1993, pese a que la cobertura ha aumentado en más de un 60%.

“Estamos tercerizados con unas condiciones laborales muy por debajo de la mayoría de muchos trabajadores estatales. Por eso, el déficit afecta directamente a maestros y estudiantes, porque al tener a la mayoría de los profesores en estas condiciones, estos tienen que buscar otros trabajos, lo que no les permite una dedicación exclusiva para la universidad, y así es muy difícil realizar procesos investigativos y otros que requieren continuidad para que la universidad pública se sostenga en un nivel académico alto. Aun así, esta universidad está entre las mejores en términos de calidad”, explicó el profesor de la Licenciatura en Educación Comunitaria, Gustavo López, quien además es integrante de ASPU y marchó en Bogotá el 10 de octubre.

Pedro Hernandez.

Al cierre de esta edición no había habido respuesta del Gobierno, la comunidad universitaria preparaba más movilizaciones y de no entregar los recursos faltantes para el presente año, una gran cantidad de universidades no podrá pagar primas y salarios de diciembre tanto a trabajadores como a profesores. “A partir de agosto de 2019, las universidades entrarían en una cesación de pagos por varios conceptos y solo podríamos trabajar la mitad del año entrante, es posible que no podamos abrir el siguiente semestre. No se podrá pagar los gastos de funcionamiento”, comentó el profesor Pedro Hernández.

Por su parte, el Gobierno nacional espera, que como se ha venido haciendo, las universidades consigan los recursos faltantes para su funcionamiento vía matrículas. “Llegará el momento en que no se puede más y se tendría que elevar mucho el costo de las matrículas, con un alto número de deserciones como consecuencia”, explica el presidente de ASPU, Pedro Hernández.

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