La agonía de los diálogos del Caguán

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El entonces presidente Andrés Pastrana y Víctor G. Ricardo con Manuel Marulanda y Jorge Briceño en los llanos del Yarí.

Crónicas del conflicto

Una historia de hace 16 años durante el gobierno de Andrés Pastrana

Carlos A. Lozano Guillén
@carloslozanogui 

En la segunda semana de noviembre de 2001, dos meses después del atentado a las torres gemelas en la Gran Manzana, por solicitud de James Lemoyne, delegado de la ONU para los diálogos del Caguán entre el gobierno del presidente Andrés Pastrana Arango y la guerrilla de las FARC-EP y de monseñor Alberto Giraldo, presidente de la Conferencia Episcopal y representante de la Iglesia en la delegación gubernamental, viajé a San Vicente del Caguán, para internarme en los llanos del Yarí en búsqueda del comandante ‘Manuel Marulanda Vélez’ para transmitir la propuesta de una reunión urgente de las FARC-EP con una delegación de la Iglesia Católica, integrada por monseñor Giraldo y el Nuncio Apostólico Angelo Acervi, con la finalidad de buscar alternativas para destrabar la crisis que tenía paralizada la negociación.

Desde octubre, con la misma finalidad, el Secretariado insurgente había hecho la propuesta de reunir una cumbre de poderes del Estado para definir qué era lo negociable en la mesa de los diálogos a fin de despejar el camino hacia soluciones realistas y concretas. La fecha prevista estaba planteada para el 15 de enero de 2002. Al fin y al cabo, nos diría después el comandante Marulanda, “la paz es un asunto del Estado y en ella deben intervenir todos los poderes públicos. Cada uno debe asumir compromisos, porque el presidente Pastrana está solo, sin respaldo y casi sin gobernabilidad”. Así lo pensaba en ese momento el legendario jefe guerrillero. Se requiere una política de paz del Estado, era su opinión.

Algunas propuestas

En aras de salvar el proceso de paz, con la mediación de los “países amigos” y del delegado de la ONU, se había suscrito el Acuerdo de San Francisco de la Sombra, el 2 de octubre de 2001, en medio de la parálisis de la mesa. En el anuncio del mismo, el presidente Pastrana, bajo presión de Estados Unidos y de la derecha militarista, decidió prorrogar la zona de distensión apenas por tres meses, estableciendo una serie de restricciones inadmisibles para la contra parte. “Todos los acuerdos, incluyendo el funcionamiento de la zona desmilitarizada, son bilaterales; además en las FARC no aceptamos ultimátums”, dijo Marulanda, con el agregado de que “la solución política no podía darse en medio de chantajes”. Según él, a esas alturas, existían suficientes documentos como la Agenda Común, el Informe de las Personalidades (o notables) y el reciente Acuerdo de San Francisco de la Sombra, cuya discusión creadora podría conducir el diálogo por buen camino.

El argumento del Gobierno Nacional fue que después del 11 de septiembre de 2001, cuando las torres gemelas fueron derribadas como un castillo de naipes, no existía ninguna justificación para la lucha armada. Toda acción en ese sentido, según el presidente de Estados Unidos, George W. Busch, sería tratada como terrorista. “El gobierno norteamericano aprovechó la circunstancia para unir el capitalismo en torno a políticas intervencionistas y en defensa de los intereses del gran capital, pero ello no cambia los fenómenos políticos y sociales del planeta y del país”, señaló Marulanda. De otra parte, el comandante en jefe Fidel Castro, declaró que “Busch tras los acontecimientos del 11 de septiembre decretó un golpe de estado contra el mundo”. En este contexto, para nada cambió la realidad colombiana ni la génesis del conflicto.

La misión

En ese marco de la realidad nos adentramos hacia el Yarí en búsqueda del comandante ‘Marulanda’. En el camino, por el intenso verano, había sequía y mucho polvo. En Los Pozos, sede de los diálogos, no había nada. El lugar estaba desolado. Llegamos hasta La Y, entrada al esplendor de las sabanas del Yarí, sin encontrar rastro de guerrillero alguno que nos pudiera guiar para cumplir la misión. Horas más tarde se acercó una camioneta Toyota en medio de una asfixiante polvareda. A bordo de ella iba Iván Ríos, de la delegación de paz de las FARC-EP, quien después de un cordial saludo aceptó acercarme a un campamento en donde se encontraba el comandante Jorge Briceño, conocido como el “Mono Jojoy”.

Al campamento llegamos como dos horas después. Informado de mi tarea de paz, el comandante Briceño me anunció que al día siguiente iriamos a buscar a ‘Marulanda’, quien “debe estar por los lados de Losada”. Me explicó que ya la gente se está recogiendo, “al parecer, dijo, a Pastrana se la agotó la gasolina del carro de la paz”. Temían la ruptura abrupta del proceso y el ataque a mansalva, como en realidad ocurrió meses después.

Al día siguiente, antes que terminara la mañana, estábamos sentados en unos troncos bajo un frondoso árbol, con ‘Manuel Marulanda’. Estaban también Jorge Briceño e Iván Ríos, quienes me habían acompañado.

“Pastrana acabó el proceso”

El jefe de las FARC-EP me recibió con las siguientes palabras: “Pastrana acabó con el proceso en un momentico”. Para el veterano de mil batallas, poco se podía hacer. Pastrana no fue capaz de enfrentar a los enemigos de la paz, “es un hombre muy debil” fue su calificativo. El Plan Colombia militarista y guerrerista, la negativa a debatir los temas de fondo de la agenda y la permisividad con las acciones criminales del paramilitarismo, son las causas reales del fracaso del Caguán. “Las FARC-EP harán todo lo posible por evitarlo, pero lo veo difícil”, fueron las palabras tranquilas del comandante ‘Marulanda’. “Por eso proponemos la cumbre de los poderes para que nos digan qué es lo negociable, qué carajo es lo negociable”, enfatizó.

En ese momento tomó la palabra el comandante Jorge Briceño y con cierto pesar reconoció que Pastrana los defraudó, “terminó obedeciendo a los gringos que son los que deciden si la paz es aceptable o no. En este caso ya dijeron que no y la respuesta es el Plan Colombia”. Me acordé de estas palabras hace unos días, cuando escuché al embajador Whitaker hablando como un virrey para torpedear la implementación del Acuerdo de La Habana.

Hablamos como seis horas, hasta que Sandra nos convocó a cenar cuando se ocultaba el sol al final del día. Iván Ríos no era muy partidario de la reunión con la iglesia. Pero Marulanda, siempre calculando cada movimiento en la brega de la pieza política, consideró útil hablar con sus delegados. “Algo puede salir de esa conversación”.

Iván, por supuesto, acató la decisión de su jefe. El “Mono”, con cierta sonrisa me dijo: “sabía que usted lo iba a convencer”. La reunión se hizo y la atendieron Raúl Reyes y Joaquín Gómez. Supe después que fue bastante tirante, pero sin conocer detalles puntuales. Lo cierto es que ya nada había que hacer. El presidente Pastrana bajo una enorme presión de los enemigos de la paz, en febrero de 2002, decidió la ruptura y decretó el fracaso de su programa bandera. Quedó lleno de rencor, de odio y de deseo de venganza, que lo han llevado a oponerse al Acuerdo de La Habana, olvidando que un día quiso la paz y no la logró por su propia incapacidad.

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