Disputa por el Golán

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Frontera entre Siria e Israel, en los Altos del Golán.

El presidente de los Estados Unidos, al reconocer una ocupación de hecho, ha roto un consenso internacional que buscaba la devolución de esas tierras a sus legítimos dueños

Ricardo Arenales

Un nuevo paso adelante en el arrasamiento del derecho internacional, dio el presidente de los Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, al anunciar el pasado 21 de marzo que “es hora de que Estados Unidos reconozca plenamente la soberanía de Israel sobre los Altos del Golán”. La decisión de Washington desconoce de un plumazo una resolución del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas de 1967, que llama al “retiro de las fuerzas armadas israelíes de los territorios ocupados” en esa parte del Cercano Oriente.

Los Altos del Golán es una franja ocupada por Israel de 1.500 kilómetros cuadrados, de los que se apoderó durante la llamada guerra de los seis días, que enfrentó al Estado sionista con una coalición de seis países árabes, entre el 5 y el 10 de junio de 1967. En desarrollo de esa confrontación, Israel expandió su territorio y ocupó además Cisjordania, la Franja de Gaza y la Península del Sinaí. La zona del Golán arrebata, estaba en manos de Siria desde 1946.

El mismo año de la ocupación, el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, mediante la resolución 242, exhortó a Israel a devolver esos territorios a sus legítimos dueños. En 1973, Egipto y Siria intentaron recuperarlos, sin lograrlo, pero causando elevado número de víctimas en un nuevo choque armado.

Región estratégica

En 1981, el parlamento en Tel Aviv, proclamó la soberanía de Israel sobre los Altos del Golán, produciendo una anexión de facto. En diciembre del mismo año, el Consejo de Seguridad, consignó en su resolución 497: “La decisión israelí de imponer sus leyes, su jurisdicción y su administración al territorio sirio ocupado de los Altos del Golán es nula, sin valor, y no tiene efecto alguno desde el punto de vista del derecho internacional.”

Altos del Golán es una franja montañosa de unos 1.800 kilómetros cuadrados, situada entre el sur de Siria y el norte de Israel, con una altura promedio a los mil metros sobre el nivel del mar. Cuenta con un yacimiento de petróleo con un volumen potencial superior al billón de barriles, y además representa una importante fuente de agua potable para Israel.

Se estima que las reservas de agua dulce del Golán, con numerosos riachuelos y ríos que desembocan en el río Jordán y en el lago Tiberíades, representan un tercio del abastecimiento de agua de Israel. Por consiguiente, el territorio posee tierras fértiles aptas para la agricultura, donde se pueden cultivar uvas, manzanas, bayas y otros productos.

Acto de coloniaje

En la actualidad los Altos del Golán está dividida en tres partes: una, bajo control del gobierno sirio; otra bajo control de Israel, y una tercera, donde se encuentra una fuerza de observación de las Naciones Unidas, cuyo objetivo es mantener la paz en la región y evitar enfrentamientos armados.

El presidente de los Estados Unidos, al reconocer una ocupación de hecho, ha roto un consenso internacional que buscaba la devolución de esas tierras a sus legítimos dueños. Todos los países que integran el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, a excepción de Washington, condenaron esta declaración. Inclusive socios tradicionales como los que integran la Unión Europea, se sumaron al rechazo. También Arabia Saudita, un aliado vital para los intereses norteamericanos en la región rechazó el reconocimiento de Trump.

El presidente de Irán, Hasán Rohaní, calificó la decisión de Estados Unidos como un acto de coloniaje que “no tiene precedentes en el siglo actual”.

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