“Una salida soberana al mar no es imposible”

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El pueblo boliviano ha respaldado al gobierno de ese país en su reclamación de una salida al mar.

Se trata de dos pueblos vecinos, que lo seguirán siendo para siempre. Y ahora tienen la oportunidad de cerrar de manera definitiva las heridas de la guerra

Ricardo Arenales

El fallo de la Corte Internacional de Justicia del primero de octubre pasado, sobre las reclamaciones de Bolivia para recuperar una salida soberana al mar, no consiguió poner fin a la prolongada disputa judicial entre esta nación y la chilena, pues al rechazar las pretensiones bolivianas, el gobierno de este país dijo que insistirá nuevamente en su reclamación.

Como se sabe, desde hace cinco años el gobierno de Evo Morales había elevado una demanda ante la CIJ, pidiendo que el alto tribunal emitiera un fallo mediante el cual obligara a los dos países a reiniciar negociaciones en torno al derecho que Bolivia ha reclamado desde hace un siglo, a una salida soberana al mar.

El conflicto comenzó en 1828, cuando la Constitución chilena estableció que su territorio llegaba hasta la región de Atacama, jurisdicción boliviana, y esto terminó en la invasión a esa zona. Con ello, Bolivia perdió 400 kilómetros lineales de costa y 120.000 kilómetros cuadrados de territorio.

No es cualquier litigio

A partir de entonces, la falta de acceso al mar para Bolivia ha representado la pérdida de recursos como la pesca, el guano, la plata, el cobre, el litio y el salitre, presentes en el terreno usurpado. La situación además afecta el libre tránsito de importaciones y exportaciones bolivianas por vía marítima. Por esta causa, los productos de exportación bolivianos son 55.7 por ciento más costosos que los chilenos y 67 por ciento más que los peruanos.

El fallo de la Corte Internacional dice: “Por doce votos contra tres, la República de Chile no está obligada jurídicamente a negociar un acceso soberano al océano Pacífico para el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia”. El fallo peca de un tecnicismo que no se compadece con la hondura de la reclamación boliviana, como si se tratara del litigio de dos finqueros que disputan la propiedad de unas vacas, y no de un conflicto histórico centenario.

La Corte no iba a sentar un precedente que conduzca a revisar las fronteras de las posesiones y conquistas de las grandes potencias occidentales, que en actos de franca piratería y de colonialismo han usurpado tierras ancestrales de decenas de naciones. La petición de Bolivia era que obligaran a ambas naciones a dialogar. Pero ni a eso accedió las Corte Internacional de Justicia.

Cerrar las heridas

Durante casi todo el siglo pasado, Bolivia intentó llevar a Chile a una mesa de negociaciones. Y aunque se presentaron altibajos con diferentes gobiernos, la verdad es que no hubo nunca un compromiso serio por acudir a la vía diplomática como mecanismo de solución a la reclamación boliviana. La Haya ha instado al diálogo y la negociación amigable. La semana pasada, unas declaraciones del canciller chileno, indicarían que podría haber un acercamiento, dada la trascendencia que tuvo la demanda del país vecino.

El presidente Evo Morales dijo en una reacción al fallo, que “los mares y océanos son patrimonio común de la humanidad, y Bolivia jamás abandonará esta causa”. Lo razonable ahora es que ambos gobiernos, de manera amistosa, se sienten a dialogar. Producto de ello, una salida soberana al mar para Bolivia, no es un imposible.

De esta manera se pondría fin a un diferendo que no solo daña a Bolivia, sino que no hace bien a la política exterior y al prestigio chilenos. Se trata de dos pueblos que son vecinos, y lo seguirán siendo para siempre. Y ahora tienen la oportunidad de cerrar de manera definitiva las heridas de la guerra.

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