Una mirada a la implementación

168
El presidente Santos firma el Acuerdo Final de La Habana, en Cartagena en septiembre de 2016.

Aunque falta mucho en lo relacionado con los compromisos del Gobierno, sí se han incrementado los atentados, al punto de haber cobrado ya la vida de muchos líderes que esperaban aportar a un país en paz y con justicia social

Laura Ligarreto
@lalisligarreto 

Ad-portas de despedir al gobierno del presidente Juan Manuel Santos, el proceso de implementación de los Acuerdos de Paz de La Habana deja muchos sinsabores. Demoras, obstrucciones e indecisiones ponen al desnudo la carencia de voluntad del régimen de cumplir con sus compromisos. La implementación adelantada es mínima en cuantía y en calidad, logrando restarle la potencia transformadora al Acuerdo Final.

Es así como a la fecha, si bien se expidió un decreto ley sobre la implementación de la reforma rural (902/17), no se ha entregado una hectárea de tierra correspondiente al Fondo, que tiene la nada despreciable meta de asignar 3 millones de hectáreas en 10 años. La situación incluso es más preocupante al ver que de esta cantidad a la fecha el Fondo tiene  solo 202 mil hectáreas.

Caso similar ocurre con los Planes de Desarrollo con Enfoque Territorial, PDET, que si bien tienen delimitadas las 16 regiones en donde van a implementarse, al momento no han avanzado como se quisiera. Tanto así que no se ha firmado el primer acto comunitario, lo que significa que se está a más o menos un año de la adopción de estos, situación que pone en riesgo su implementación de corto y mediano plazo, en tanto dependerá de los nuevos gobernantes locales y regionales garantizar los recursos para su cumplimiento; esto sin contar con la reducción de su alcance, especialmente en lo relativo a discutir el modelo de desarrollo de las regiones respecto de las expectativas y cosmovisiones de las comunidades.

Aumentan los atentados

Caso similar ocurre con los planes nacionales de la reforma rural integral que al momento cuentan  con varios borradores, pero sin definiciones en varios casos; y que si deben tener en cuenta los requerimientos de los PDET saldrán solamente después de la expedición de estos últimos, con lo cual el Gobierno nacional entrante tendrá la posibilidad de frenar o dificultar su aplicación en tanto serán posteriores al Plan Nacional de Desarrollo.

En lo relativo a participación no se han generado estrategias necesarias para fortalecer los espacios de participación del territorio ni para vincular efectivamente a las comunidades en discusiones tan vigentes como el ordenamiento territorial; a nivel nacional no se han generado los planes de acompañamiento para reformar leyes como la de participación, la electoral y especialmente la relativa a la creación de las circunscripciones de paz, que, por segunda vez, se enreda en el trámite legislativo.

El proceso de reincorporación de los excombatientes de las FARC tampoco se ha llevado de la mejor manera, las zonas veredales transitorias de normalización terminaron sin las garantías necesarias para una vida digna, situación que con la constitución de los Espacios Territoriales de Capacitación y Reincorporación, ETCR, tampoco logró solucionarse. Se han suspendido los pagos de las rentas básicas de los excombatientes, no han llegado los proyectos productivos que debían generarse después del censo socioeconómico desarrollado por la Universidad Nacional, no han sido amnistiados ni indultados todos los que tienen derecho a ello por cuenta del Acuerdo Final. En cambio, se han incrementado los atentados a la seguridad en los ETCR, al punto de haber cobrado ya la vida de varias personas que esperaban aportar a un país en paz y con justicia social.

En lo relativo al tema de drogas, si bien se han firmado varios acuerdos de sustitución de cultivos de uso ilícito -a la fecha 29- lo cierto es que estos están enfocados a estrategias anteriores por lo que no corresponden con la posibilidad de esas comunidades de acceder a planes integrales de sustitución y desarrollo alternativo, uno de los puntos más importantes del Acuerdo Final.

Otros incumplimientos

Es de anotar, que si bien ya empezó a operar la unidad especializada de la Fiscalía para el desmantelamiento de las organizaciones herederas del paramilitarismo, sus actividades se han concentrado solo en una región, lo que ha generado pocos avances en el desarrollo de su tarea.

Pese a la importancia que durante el proceso de negociación se le dio al tema de víctimas, la implementación del sistema integral de verdad, justicia, reparación y garantías de no repetición, es uno de los grandes pendientes que deja este gobierno, pues si bien se crearon la unidad de búsqueda de personas dadas por desaparecidas, la comisión de esclarecimiento de la verdad y la JEP, ninguna de las tres ha entrado a asumir sus funciones de manera plena. De la unidad se sabe poco más allá del nombre de su directora, no se sabe cómo será su funcionamiento interno, su plan de acción, su asignación presupuestal y en qué zonas del país va a priorizar sus tareas. De la comisión si bien se tienen ya nombrados sus integrantes y se han establecido en el papel 16 oficinas regionales, no se conoce el proceso por el cual las organizaciones sociales podrían hacerse parte de este importante mecanismo de justicia y verdad; mientras que en la JEP hay importantes retrasos, tanto que a la fecha ni siquiera se conocen los tribunales regionales por medio de los cuales va a operar, ni se ha iniciado el funcionamiento de sus diferentes salas.

El punto seis del acuerdo, que en esta primera fase de la implementación es quizá el más importante, tampoco ha tenido los avances esperados. En ese sentido, por ejemplo, el hecho de que no hay una versión definitiva del plan marco de implementación dificulta el ejercicio de afianzamiento de lo acordado, pues dicho plan debe ser la base del Conpes, marco de planeación de la política fiscal a mediano y largo plazo, por lo que dependerá de quien gane en las elecciones presidenciales el avance y los recursos de los planes, programas y proyectos acordados para los próximos  10 años. Tampoco se han creado los fondos necesarios para utilizar el presupuesto de los entes territoriales en proyectos relativos a la implementación. En ese sentido, si bien se crearon los denominados OCADpaz, estos tienen un alcance limitado a excedentes del ahorro pensional, lo que no se utiliza del fondo de ciencia y tecnología y a los rendimientos financieros del sistema general de regalías; medidas tímidas para la implementación que necesitamos.

Por lo anterior, hoy más que nunca el futuro de la paz está en riesgo, y luego de casi dos años de implementación lo que está claro es que para lograr la paz estable y duradera diseñada en el Acuerdo Final, se necesita un gobierno realmente comprometido con los cambios profundos que necesita esta sociedad y que se posibilitan en parte muy importante por medio de la implementación del acuerdo de La Habana. Hoy más que nunca se necesita un Gobierno democrático comprometido con la lucha del pueblo. Esa es la lección que dejan dos años de postconflicto, justo antes de la segunda vuelta presidencial.

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