Madres comunitarias: Una labor altruista

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“Esta es una labor social que hacemos y los padres y madres tienen más confianza, por lo general, en las madres comunitarias que en algunos jardines particulares”: Luz Mary Orduz

Renata Cabrales
@RENATARELATA 

Como es de saber, para las mujeres de bajos recursos que son madres, no sería posible trabajar para poder asumir los gastos de la familia, si no tuvieran con quien dejar a sus hijos e hijas, además de que pagar una pensión en una guardería particular es casi imposible. Por eso el ICBF, que es la institución encargada de cuidar y proteger a los niños y las niñas de Colombia creó el plan de los Hogares Comunitarios hace 30 años.

Un hogar comunitario que no viene a ser una guardería formal sino que se encuentra dentro de una casa de familia en la que una madre comunitaria se encarga de cuidar alrededor de 14 niños que vivan en su zona. Por lo general en una hay muchísimos niños, por lo cual es necesario que se hacen varios hogares comunitarios y hasta hoy hay alrededor de 62 mil madres comunitarias encargadas de cumplir con esta labor, bastante altruista y solidaria.

“Manejamos una población vulnerable, donde papá y mamá tienen que trabajar y no tienen con quien dejar a los niños y niñas, manejamos el horario de ocho a cuatro de la tarde. Muchos de los papitos tienen que dejarlos con personas que los traen y recojen del jardín en horario extendido. Hay muchas madres solteras y algunos padres solteros. Nosotras les colaboramos en lo que más podemos acá y se les da el refrigerio de la mañana, almuerzo y otra vez refrigerio por la tarde. Ellos por la alimentación no se tienen que preocupar. El ICBF nos paga nuestros salarios, el mínimo. El ICBF da toda la alimentación.

Antes las madres comunitarias no podían acceder al seguro social sino que las contrataban con otro tipo de condiciones, por eso, es que ellas están apelando, para poder recibir pensión. Esta es una labor social que hacemos y los padres y madres tienen más confianza, por lo general, en las madres comunitarias que en algunos jardines particulares”, dice  Luz Mary Orduz”, quien trabaja como madre comunitaria desde hace dos años, con la asociación SEB Unidos.

Una labor a favor de las personas más vulnerables

Por lo general, esta labor la llevan a cabo mujeres que viven en zonas muy vulnerables, donde residen muchos niños y niñas, cuyos padres y madres deben cumplir con jornadas extenuantes de trabajo, asimismo se ven muchos casos de madres solteras que ven en la función de madres comunitarias una gran ayuda para ellas poder salir a laborar, para sostener a su familia.

“En esta zona de Suba los papás y las mamás por lo general, trabajan en oficios varios, como vigilantes y en el cultivo de flores, lo que los mantiene mucho tiempo ocupados y confían a nosotras el cuidado de sus hijos, a veces en horarios extendidos”, afirma Diana Quintero, madre comunitaria desde hace dos años.

Según datos del programa de El Espectador, Las Igualadas, son dos millones de niños y niñas en condición de vulnerabilidad, que se benefician de este programa. Asimismo, en el programa de El Espectador, se afirma que al menos, el 25 por ciento de la población colombiana ha pasado por un hogar comunitario e incluso, algunas madres comunitarias trabajan como madres sustitutas, pues los niños que no tienen familia duermen en estos hogares.

“Llevo 29 años en el programa, nosotras empezamos ganando una beca que era muy poco y no alcanzaba para cotizar pensión ni nada, en ese entonces eran como 60 mil pesos, que era más una ayuda personal, porque esa labor la inicia una prácticamente como voluntaria para servir a la comunidad, pero entonces nosotras no somos reconocidas como personas que hacen una labor, y trabajamos en nuestras casas. En ese entonces empezamos con 15 niños, actualmente solo se aceptan 14.

Debido a lo poco que recibíamos no alcanzábamos a pagar para cotizar las semanas de pensión y poder pensionarnos. Lo que sucede también es que nunca contamos con una persona que nos asesorase y nos dijera que teníamos que pagar parar empezar a cotizar y poder pensionarnos. A veces, pagábamos solo la seguridad social y hubo veces en que estábamos en el Sisbén. Yo ya tengo 49 años y no me alcanza para la pensión, y ya la necesito, pues tengo muchos problemas de salud”, dice María Clara Arias.

Más de una función a la vez

Estas mujeres, por su parte, cumplen con muchas funciones al tiempo, es decir, enfermeras, nutricionistas, maestras y cocineras. Además, trabajan por vocación y están al servicio de los niños y niñas más necesitadas del país.

Pero no se les paga bien por su trabajo, según cifras también de El Espectador, durante muchos años les pagaban menos del 50 por ciento del salario mínimo a lo que llamaban “beca”. Más adelante, en el 2007, la ley ordenó que les pagaran el 70 por ciento del mínimo y en el 2012 la Corte Constitucional ordenó que les pagaran el mínimo completo, pero esto no se cumplió del todo. Asimismo, con la firma del Decreto 289 del 12 de febrero que reglamenta la formalización de 63 mil madres comunitarias por parte del presidente Juan Manuel Santos, el 98 por ciento de las madres comunitarias ya firmó un contrato laboral que les garantiza salario mínimo mensual y seguridad social.

“Yo comencé en el año 2001 con un bono de 300 mil pesos trabajando ocho horas con 14 niños, no pagábamos pensión. En el 2008 empezamos a pagar pensión y llevo 18 años en el programa, tenemos inconvenientes porque a pesar del tiempo que llevo no nos van a pensionar. Por motivos de salud, ya que soy hipertensa y tengo artrosis degenerativa, ya debería recibir una pensión, además de mi edad: 58 años. Pero, por las semanas cotizadas no me alcanzo a pensionar”, asegura por su parte Dany Amparo reyes.

La protesta

Son 63 mil madres comunitarias y el Estado no quiere gastar en su pensión. Durante más de una semana varias de ellas estuvieron encerradas en la Catedral Primada, ubicada en la Plaza de Bolívar de Bogotá, en huelga de hambre, en protesta por la reversa de la Corte Constitucional al decretar la nulidad de un fallo de tutela que reconocía el pago de pensiones a un grupo de 100 trabajadoras. Las madres comunitarias le están solicitando a la Corte la vigencia de la Sentencia T-480 del 2016, donde se reconocían dichas pensiones. Al respecto, la Corte Constitucional comunicó que unificó su jurisprudencia para reiterar su precedente sobre la inexistencia de un contrato real entre las madres comunitarias y el ICBF.

Algunas madres comunitarias han logrado crear asociaciones y de esta forma conseguir que una empresa les patrocine los arriendos como es el caso de las madres de la Asociación SCB unidos (San Carlos, Berlín, Toscana, San Pedro, en Suba) la representante es Gloria García y son 17 jardines en el sector, y cada uno está a cargo de 14 niños. Esta asociación tuvo un patrocino por diez años con Compensar, que ya finalizó y ahora les toca gestionar por su propia cuenta el pago de los arriendos.

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