Una apuesta para la paz

270
Proyecto Reconciliación. Foto Luis Torres – APR.

La ira, el odio y la frustración han roto el tejido social, generando miedo y zozobra debido a las vulneraciones dejadas por la guerra. Es de vital importancia impulsar un proceso de reconciliación y perdón que aporte a una paz estable y duradera

Luis Torres – Agencia Prensa Rural
@PrensaRural 

El contexto histórico del Magdalena Medio da cuenta de la incidencia del conflicto armado en el sur de Bolívar. Son evidentes la presencia y confrontación de grupos armados, las violaciones a los derechos humanos y la violencia que impacta a esta región, dejando múltiples víctimas que con el paso del tiempo han abierto campos de resiliencia y resistencia.

El sur de Bolívar ha sido golpeado por el conflicto, la pugna por la tierra, la minería, la tala indiscriminada y los cultivos de uso ilícito. Diversos factores hacen vulnerable a la región. Entre ellos resaltan el abandono estatal y ser teatro de operaciones de grupos armados. Aún hace presencia el Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN), que disputa el territorio a la presencia armada del Estado y bandas criminales.

La confrontación se ha traducido en un alto índice de victimización que ha desplazado a Barrancabermeja (Santander) unas 150 mil víctimas de la región, lo que hizo necesario realizar un proyecto piloto que genere posibilidades reales de reconciliación bajo el marco de la implementación de los acuerdos de La Habana.

Con la firma del acuerdo final entre el Gobierno y las FARC-EP y la implementación de su punto 5, se vislumbra la posibilidad de la participación efectiva de las víctimas. La implementación de un acuerdo que tiene como eje central a las víctimas hace posible visibilizar elementos que puedan permitir una garantía de no repetición de la confrontación armada.

En este contexto, trabajar con la reconciliación puede enseñar a víctimas y victimarios a convivir con diferentes puntos de vista ideológicos, políticos y económicos, reencontrarse y replantearse en clave de no repetición y reconciliación.

El propósito es avanzar en la construcción de escenarios reales de participación de las víctimas y seguir construyendo acciones propias desde los territorios hacia la reconciliación y participación en el sistema integral de verdad, justicia, reparación y no repetición. Por este motivo, la Asociación Nacional de Víctimas de Crímenes de Estado (Asorvimm) toma la decisión de avanzar en el proceso de reconciliación entre víctimas y excombatientes del Magdalena Medio.

Asorvimm es una organización que nace dentro del marco del proceso de paz entre el Estado colombiano y las Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC), en respuesta a la falta de garantías para las víctimas de dicho grupo armado en el 2005 al expedirse la ley 975 de justicia y paz que privilegió a los victimarios. Asorvimm toma como bandera la reconciliación como apuesta de construcción de paz en la región. La reconciliación en el territorio y la reconstrucción del tejido social a partir del trabajo psicosocial plantean soluciones reconciliatorias desde la perspectiva e iniciativa de las víctimas.

“Queremos mostrar al resto del país que las víctimas estamos dispuestas a recibir en el seno de nuestra sociedad, en los núcleos comunitarios, a quienes en algún momento generaron algún tipo de vulneración de derechos a la población civil colombiana”, aclara Nilson Castrillón, representante legal de Asorvimm.

Actualmente en la región se encuentran viviendo excombatientes del Bloque Central Bolívar de las AUC, excombatientes del ahora partido FARC y personas desmovilizadas del ELN, quienes conviven con personas que han sido víctimas de estas estructuras y con la Fuerza Pública.

El 22 de marzo de 2018 se da inició a un proyecto de reconciliación entre víctimas y excombatientes del conflicto, que se plantea a lo largo de nueve meses gestar una experiencia que recoja elementos de aceptación y perdón, y que signifique una integración social en los territorios que fueron epicentro de la vulneración de derechos humanos.

La propuesta que genera Asorvimm es facilitar espacios para la construcción de paz, brindando un acompañamiento psicosocial a fin de generar un proceso de reconciliación, perdón y sana convivencia entre víctimas y excombatientes de diferentes grupos armados en los municipios de Cantagallo, San Pablo, Simití y Santa Rosa en el sur de Bolívar, tomando como punta de lanza la implementación del acuerdo desde los esfuerzos propios y territoriales que conformen las bases de la construcción de tejido social en las comunidades.

Es necesario que el victimario reconozca los daños ocasionados dentro de la dinámica del conflicto y cuente con toda la disposición de pedir perdón y aceptar una realidad que le permita trabajar de la mano junto a las víctimas.

Es igualmente importante que las víctimas alcancen a comprender que los daños causados han sido generados por un contexto que los puso como enemigos dentro del mismo seno social, lo que permite florecer la necesidad de dar perdón y aportar a un proceso de reintegración social a sus victimarios, dejando atrás las diferencias impuestas por las dinámicas económicas y políticas, estableciendo un enfoque que permita superar los problemas que generaron estas confrontaciones.

El proceso de reincorporar, perdonar y reconciliar implica generar procesos de convivencia pacífica y diálogos no violentos entre la población destinataria, que instauren un camino de reparación de las condiciones emocionales para superar aquellos sentimientos y emociones negativas y así poder mirarse al rostro, comprender la humanidad del otro, restablecer lo quebrantado de manera activa, y construir un escenario de perdón y reconciliación de las víctimas del conflicto y personas en proceso de reintegración provenientes de distintos grupos armados.

Por tanto, es fundamental romper los sesgos que le dan vida a las dinámicas de guerra que permitan exigir garantías económicas, políticas y de participación al Estado colombiano para erradicar este distanciamiento social que dio origen al conflicto.

“Cuando las actividades inician es probable que se encuentren con los que les pudieron haber generado daño. En un principio la gente comienza a sentir miedo, tristeza, rabia. Y también hay quienes lo reciben con alegría al poder reconciliarse y perdonar a sus victimarios. Hay excombatientes que no son victimarios de esa población directa, pero reconocen como colectivo que generaron posibles daños a diferentes poblaciones de la región”, afirma Camilo Medrano, coordinador del proyecto.

Una de las dificultades que presenta realizar un proyecto con población tan cercana y vulnerable ha sido el poco respaldo de la institucionalidad, lo cual ha influenciado de manera determinante en la logística del mismo; sin embargo se ha podido contar con la voluntad de paz y reconciliación de los líderes comunitarios que se comprometen en la formación de grupos bases que sean reincidentes en las actividades.

Proyecto Reconciliación. Foto Luis Torres – APR.

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