El Sumapaz exige el reconocimiento de la Zona de Reserva Campesina

206
Páramo de Sumapaz. Foto Diego Méndez.

El Congreso realiza audiencia pública en el territorio

Sara Zapata
@sagaza91 

El pasado 3 de noviembre de 2018 se realizó la audiencia pública en defensa de la Zona de Reserva Campesina del Sumapaz y reconocimiento del campesinado como sujeto histórico de protección y cuidado ambiental del páramo del Sumapaz. Su principal objetivo fue reconocer la Zona de Reserva Campesina del Sumapaz como la mejor forma de protección y cuidado ambiental del páramo.

A las 10 de la mañana se dieron cita alrededor de 700 personas por convocatoria de la Asociación Nacional de Zonas de Reserva Campesina (Anzorc), el Sindicato de Trabajadores Agrícolas del Sumapaz (Sintrapaz) y la proposición presentada por la bancada FARC en la plenaria de la Cámara de Representantes. Al evento asistieron más de 30 organizaciones, integrantes de la comunidad académica, los representantes a la Cámara Sergio Marín, María José Pizarro y los senadores Aída Avella, Sandra Ramírez y Carlos Antonio Lozada. También fueron citadas las instituciones y autoridades ambientales como Minagricultura, Minambiente, ANT, Secretarías de Gobierno y Ambiente, Personerías, CAR Cundinamarca, UE, Instituto Humboldt, entre otros.

Así se desarrolló la audiencia pública por la zona de reserva campesina en el Sumapaz. Foto Diego Méndez.

Una ZRC que no avanza

Esta forma de ordenamiento territorial fue creada por el Artículo 80 de la Ley 160 de 1994, y en ella se contemplan diferentes medidas que benefician la economía campesina dentro de un territorio de especial protección. Desde el año 1998 las organizaciones campesinas de Sumapaz, que durante décadas han sido baluarte de las luchas agrarias, empezaron a diseñar el proyecto de la zona de reserva para su región. En el 2014 ya se había elaborado una propuesta de Plan de Desarrollo Sostenible que gira alrededor de los siguientes ejes: 1. Acceso a la tierra y permanencia en los territorios, 2. Consolidación de la economía campesina, 3. Valoración de nuestro patrimonio físico rural, 4. Construcción de autonomía, 5. Arraigo cultural, y 6. Autonomía y soberanía alimentaria; este se caracteriza por ser un plan de vida alternativo, construido consecuentemente con la realidad y el contexto de las comunidades.

En el 2017, a pesar de tener todos los pasos para constituirse como ZRC, el Consejo Directivo de la Agencia Nacional de Tierras decidió establecer una mesa técnica con el Ministerio de Ambiente, el Instituto Humboldt y las organizaciones sociales, para discutir el traslape de los terrenos de la ZRC con los de la delimitación del Parque Nacional Natural de los páramos de Sumapaz y Cruz Verde.

Para el presidente del sindicato Sintrapaz, René Dimaté, le han apostado a esta figura de ordenamiento territorial, ya que es la única medida para que se reconozcan los derechos de los  campesinos, a una educación pública y de calidad, a la salud que sea acorde a las necesidades, y vías de acceso para sacar los productos . “El páramo le pertenece a toda Colombia y al mundo, pero son los campesinos los que los preservamos y lo cuidamos, pedimos que las instituciones dialoguen con las comunidades”

Y es que los campesinos tienen las de ganar, ya que por ejemplo la tutela que protege el páramo de Santurbán creó jurisprudencia para obligar a las instituciones a abrir la participación de las comunidades en la delimitación del páramo y a tener en cuenta sus planes de desarrollo.

Para los habitantes del páramo es urgente que se reglamente la ZRC, ya que para ellos es la forma más efectiva para el cierre de la frontera agrícola y para estabilizar la economía campesina; también una correcta organización territorial permitirá acabar con el acaparamiento de tierras y promover la pequeña propiedad rural.

La Agencia Nacional de Tierras, entidad que reemplazó al liquidado Incoder, ya reconoció la conformación de siete Zonas de Reserva Campesina: Valle del Río Cimitarra, municipios de Morales y Arenal en Bolívar, en Caquetá en la región Cuenca del Río Pato y el Valle de Balsillas, en Putumayo en Bajo Cuembí y Comandante, los municipios de San José del Guaviare, El Retorno y Calamar en el Guaviare, y dentro del páramo de Sumapaz el municipio de Cabrera, Cundinamarca.

Nuevas restricciones para la participación ciudadana

La constitución de la ZRC es una garantía para defender el territorio de la actividad extractiva y del turismo depredador, sin embargo, los gobiernos neoliberales que ha tenido Colombia en los últimos años, han decidido defender los derechos y comodidades de los empresarios y las multinacionales, es por esto que les preocupa que prosperen herramientas ciudadanas como las consultas previas y las consultas populares que buscan restringir la actividad extractivista en los territorios.

Una muestra de esto fue la sentencia de la Corte Constitucional en favor de la multinacional Mansarovar Energy, donde argumentan que los intereses de los territorios no pueden imponerse sobre los de la Nación, y que las consultas populares no pueden prohibir las actividades extractivas; luego vino la decisión del Consejo de Estado que tumbó un día antes la consulta popular en San Bernardo, Cundinamarca.

A la audiencia acudieron representantes de los procesos organizativos de Cabrera y Fusagasugá, lugares donde ganaron las consultas populares, y se solidarizaron con los campesinos del páramo, reafirmaron la necesidad de una ZRC y de la implementación del primer punto de los acuerdos de paz: la Reforma Rural Integral.

Conclusiones de la audiencia

Luego de seis horas de exposiciones de motivos, respuestas de las entidades y deliberaciones en torno al territorio y la identidad de la región sumapaceña se destacan varias conclusiones.

La defensa que hace el Instituto Humboldt acerca de la compatibilidad de la Zona de Reserva: “Los paramos no han estado solos ni alejados de la actividad humana, esta relación ha sido configurada a través de la historia. No es posible conservar los ecosistemas sacando a la gente, sino creando acuerdos, modelos de gestión que garanticen la protección de unas zonas que ya han sido ocupadas” dijo Carlos Tapia, representante del instituto.

Una de las propuestas centrales es concertar un plan estratégico de manejo y sostenibilidad ambiental del territorio que garantice la protección del páramo y del agua, lo cual implica resolver las tensiones entre instituciones responsables del tema (CAR, Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia y el Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible) y las comunidades.

Se constituirá una mesa de trabajo donde se discutan los conflictos territoriales con las comunidades, organizaciones y movimientos sociales de la ZRC, que permitan superar los obstáculos.

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