El soundtrack de la revolución

125
Músico en las calles de La Habana.

La era que se inauguró hace 60 años, trajo consigo una interesante producción cultural, donde se destaca el impacto de sonidos rebeldes que le cantan tanto a los protagonistas como a los acontecimientos del cambio. Canciones que se convierten en la banda sonora de una revolución que estremeció a América

Óscar Sotelo Ortiz
@oscarsopos

A manera de síntesis, el periodista italiano Saverio Tuttino en su recomendado libro “Breve historia de la revolución cubana”, describe los hechos del 1 de enero de 1959 como el inicio de una nueva era continental.

Cuba, el pequeño país insular del Caribe, en palabras de Cristóbal Colón, era “la llave del nuevo mundo”. Su privilegiada posición geográfica, hizo que Hernán Cortés partiera de Cuba para dar inicio a la sangrienta conquista de la Nueva España, convirtiéndola en la base fundamental de la colonia en las Américas. Inglaterra quiso introducir su incipiente industrialización y Estados Unidos logró imponer su, dominio imperialista, en la nefasta fórmula de república controlada desde Washington.

Ciclo de dominación que se fracturó para siempre, con la victoria en armas de la revolución. Independencia, soberanía y autodeterminación, máximas del proceso.

En artículo fechado para octubre de 1960 y que lleva por título Los horizontes de Cuba, el historiador británico Eric Hobsbawm, identificaba la velocidad de las transformaciones que se estaban viviendo en la isla. “Las revoluciones no pueden esperar”, es la fórmula con la que el reconocido académico analiza los sucesos que se experimentaban. “Una revolución real, que quiebra con el pasado”, que no resultó nublada por nociones preconcebidas, demostraba desde la cotidianidad de los acontecimientos, el carácter empírico y no doctrinario del emergente socialismo en Cuba.

Ruptura cultural

La rapidez con la que se fueron desarrollando los cambios, tuvo un fuerte impacto en las esferas económicas y sociales de la isla. La idea de “una Cuba libre y próspera” estaba sujeta al imperativo de atacar el imperialismo, erradicando la pobreza y la ignorancia.

La música jugó un papel trascendental en los propósitos del proceso. Los sonidos de Cuba tienen en su ADN un excepcional desarrollo histórico donde la herencia colonial configura una combinación de sonidos europeos con ritmos africanos. El epicentro que ve florecer la identidad de la música cubana es la primera mitad del siglo XX, época donde se crea una vasta producción musical con contenido popular, siendo sones, boleros, guajiras, guarachas, cha cha chás, mambos y rumbas, las expresiones culturales que vio en artistas como María Cervantes, Manuel Corona o Miguel Matamoros algunos de sus más aclamados exponentes.

El proceso insurgente, consciente de este fantástico acervo, conjugó la herencia cultural con los sonidos del momento. El resultado, una poderosa producción musical, que registraron las memorias de los hechos: una revolución que triunfa y un pueblo que en medio de las dificultades trabaja desde el día uno por la consolidación del primer experimento socialista en nuestra América mestiza.

Los himnos de la revolución

Paradójicamente, composiciones emblemáticas de la etapa guerrillera llegaron de otros rincones de Latinoamérica. Sierra Maestra del puertorriqueño Daniel Santos, “El jefe” y Agustín Díaz Cartaya, y ¡Cuba sí, yanquis no!, del militante comunista colombiano, Alejandro Gómez Roa, fueron piezas eminentes que inspiraron la lucha armada.

Esta última, canción inmortal en la memoria colectiva del pueblo cubano, anticipaba la lucha que se iniciaría con la revolución, desencadenando la ira de la superpotencia vecina a tan solo 90 millas de La Habana.

Por su parte, Carlos Puebla, nacido en la ciudad de Manzanillo, y su conjunto “Los tradicionales”, se convirtieron rápidamente en los cronistas de la revolución. Puebla cultivó en su producción artística diversos géneros de la música popular cubana como el son, el bolero, la guaracha y el sucu-sucu. Sus composiciones Y en eso llego Fidel, ¡Yankee, go home!, Este es mi pueblo, Canto a Camilo, Si no fuera por Emiliana, Son de la alfabetización, entre otros cantos revolucionarios, convierten su enorme obra en himnos populares del proceso rebelde.

Quizás la pieza más conocida de Carlos Puebla, sea la composición Hasta siempre dedicada al comandante Ernesto “Che” Guevara. Inspirada en la lucha internacionalista del revolucionario argentino, primero en el Congo y luego en Bolivia, Puebla ensambla un auténtico cántico revolucionario en homenaje al guerrillero heroico.

De las dificultades a la Nueva Trova

Son innegables los aprietos que tuvo que sortear la revolución. Con la migración de capas altas y medias de población cubana, especialmente hacia los Estados Unidos ya sea a las ciudades de Nueva York o Miami, también existió un flujo migratorio de expresiones culturales, donde las manifestaciones musicales no fueron la excepción.

A los cierres de los clubes nocturnos, o Night Clubs, donde las fuentes de trabajo de muchos artistas se vieron afectadas, se le suma el bloqueo económico que derivó en un impacto fuerte en la industria discográfica y musical.

En ese contexto post-revolución, emerge el movimiento de la Nueva Trova combinando las raíces de la trova tradicional, el rock y el pop del mundo occidental, con la narrativa de la revolución. Situado en un periodo histórico de revueltas continentales y expresiones artísticas que respondían a los sucesos, donde se destaca la Nueva Canción Latinoamericana, la Nueva Trova vio nacer a una destacada generación de artistas comprometidos con el momento de Cuba.

Pablo Milanés, Silvio Rodríguez, Leo Brouwer y Noel Nicola, se convirtieron en el destacamento de jóvenes talentos que representaron el movimiento. Al ritmo de son, jazz y bolero, Milanés proporciona composiciones emotivas con el contexto social de Cuba y Latinoamérica. Canción por la unidad latinoamericana, Amo esta isla, Cuba va, Yo pisaré las calles nuevamente, entre otros éxitos del nacido en Bayamo, combinaron una extensa carrera donde política y amor se convirtieron en su obsesión artística.

Por su parte, Rodríguez tiene en su extensa producción discográfica, temas dedicados al proceso de cambio. Canción del elegido, La era está pariendo un corazón, Playa Girón, El necio, Fusil contra fusil, Epistolario del subdesarrollo, son entre muchas otras, un acumulado musical que recrea el compromiso del movimiento y el legado cultural de la revolución, en Cuba como en toda América Latina.

El soundtrack

A 60 años de la revolución, hoy Cuba evoca su proceso histórico con sus cantos populares y antiimperialistas. En las tablas de la historia, lo que desencadenó el Movimiento 26 de julio, recrea una auténtica película que tiene por naturaleza una banda sonora, un soundtrack. Al escucharlos, no solo se despierta un acumulado histórico valioso, sino un relato cultural de aquellos días de gloria que inspiran nuevos momentos y nuevos sonidos. Cuba va, con su proceso, su gente, su música y su revolución.}

Selección de canciones de la revolución

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