Cómo sobrevivimos la guerra

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Albergue campesino en el Sur de Bolívar. Foto Archivo Credhos.

Campamento de refugio humanitario: mecanismo histórico de protección para las comunidades campesinas

Coordinación de Memoria ACVC
@ACVCRAN 

El conflicto armado en nuestro país se ha usado para suprimir liderazgos urbanos y rurales por parte de la burguesía nacional y ha dejado a su paso muerte y dolor; sin embargo ha desencadenado también acciones de paz y de defensa de la vida. Una de estas acciones es el Campamento de Refugio Humanitario, desarrollado por la Asociación Campesina del Valle del río Cimitarra (ACVC) y la Corporación Acción Humanitaria por la Convivencia y la Paz del Nordeste Antioqueño (Cahucopana).

El Campamento de Refugio Humanitario se ha declarado en varias veredas del territorio; desde Remedios, en Antioquia; hasta Simití y San Pablo, en el sur de Bolívar; pasando por Yondó, en el Magdalena Medio. Los campesinos y las organizaciones sociales han utilizado esta figura como mecanismo de resistencia para mitigar y prevenir infracciones a los derechos humanos y al Derecho Internacional Humanitario por parte de fuerzas militares y paramilitares. Así, miles de vidas han sido salvadas y, gracias a este mecanismo, miles de personas han permanecido en sus territorios resistiendo la ofensiva económica que se esconde tras tales infracciones.

Gracias al proyecto “Memoria Campesina y Protección de Derechos para la Paz” de la ACVC, se tiene noticia de la constitución de este mecanismo desde la década de los ochenta. Para ese entonces el conflicto del Estado contra las insurgencias y el campesinado se agudizó como consecuencia de lucha contra la droga, amparada en el Estatuto de Seguridad. Se trató de una lucha infundada porque atacaba cualquier conato que se opusiera al statu quo de manera indiscriminada, mientras aumentaba la movilización social y la exigencia de paz y tierras por parte del campesinado.

Socializan los riesgos

La ofensiva militar atacó por igual a insurgentes y sociedad civil. No importaba si se trataba de quienes decidieron empuñar las armas y tomarse el poder mediante la conquista revolucionaria, o sí se trataba de comunidades campesinas exigiendo el cumplimiento de sus derechos y la democratización de la tierra. En medio de la guerra contra los campesinos, surgió el Campamento de Refugio Humanitario.

Se trata de un arduo procedimiento que requiere de coherencia y organización: campesinos de la región comparten constantemente información sobre los riesgos que existen en el territorio; ante la inminencia de una vulneración, avisan a una junta de acción comunal o una organización civil; se procede entonces a desocupar el caserío por donde presumiblemente haría el recorrido la tropa y se establece un campamento con un cordón de seguridad en un sitio previamente acondicionado.

Desde que los campesinos se apropiaron del refugio, cada uno tenía a la mano arroz, panela, sal, aceite, una hamaca y toldo, un machete y un costal. En el refugio se organizan por comisiones: algunos consiguen proteína animal de la selva, otros se encargan de la cocina, otros del aseo, otros de la seguridad.

Los tiempos y espacios del refugio varían. El proyecto conoció de un campamento que duró tres meses en zona selvática de la vereda La Concha, en Yondó, en los ochenta; pero también se conocieron campamentos de diez días. Cabe destacar que la finalización del espacio es determinada por los líderes y los participantes del mismo en asamblea general, tras realizar un diagnóstico in situ del riesgo y gracias a la información obtenida de otros campesinos sobre el movimiento del agente victimizador.

Los refugios humanitarios requirieron de un periodo de configuración que implicó la apropiación por parte del campesinado; después se pasó a un periodo de maduración ampliando las medidas de protección a mediano plazo y con enfoque territorial; finalmente se llegó a un refugio que permitía la articulación de propuestas para la defensa territorial y medidas de prevención a largo plazo. La diferencia entre uno y otro periodo radica en tres aspectos: el espacio, los participantes y el nivel de organización.

Al principio se hacían al interior de la región, en caseríos o zonas selváticas, en el punto establecido por la comunidad, y los participantes eran campesinos. Después se hacían en zonas urbanas y participaban además miembros de sindicatos, estudiantes, representantes de las instituciones del Estado. Finalmente se hacían en una vereda específica, acondicionada para tal fin, con participantes que buscaban la construcción de una agenda de intervención y prevención frente a riesgos integrales identificados.

Si la guerra del Estado contra los campesinos configuró el primer periodo del refugio, los éxodos, como repertorio de fuerza y resistencia campesina, configuraron el segundo periodo, ya que los campesinos se asentaron en zonas urbanas para exigir protección, así se le imprimió una nueva dinámica a la figura del refugio: la instauración de mesas de trabajo con el Estado en zonas urbanas para la garantía de los derechos a corto plazo.

Movilidad

Muestra de esto fue el Campamento de Refugio Humanitario de 2007 que se instauró a partir de las ejecuciones extrajudiciales cometidas por parte del Ejército Nacional. Se organizó así una concentración cuando asesinaron a Carlos Mario García, miembro de la comisión cultural de la ACVC, y Miguel Ángel González Gutiérrez, miembro de Cahucopana. Líderes del territorio, buscando mitigar una posible masacre, acudieron a todos los puntos habitados de la Zona de Reserva Campesina para concentrar a sus pobladores en el punto determinado: Puerto Nuevo Ité.

El Refugio permaneció allí hasta que, por la agudización de la intervención militar, se trasladó a Barrancabermeja para presionar la interlocución con entidades del Estado y se construyó una agenda de intervención; tras el rechazo de las órdenes de captura emitidas contra la dirigencia de la asociación que lideraba la movilización.

De esta experiencia surgió la concentración en Campamento Ecológico que consiste en una figura planeada, a diferencia de los refugios, orientada a la consecución de derechos territoriales desde el punto de vista ambiental. Aunque no se circunscribe directamente con la mitigación de infracciones, busca generar un marco social para su prevención.

A pesar de que los Campamentos de Refugio Humanitario han tenido estos periodos específicos, con sus particularidades anotadas, ante una amenaza de vulneración, se puede activar esta figura para movilizar a los campesinos y asegurar la preservación de la vida y, de ser necesario, desplazarse hacia zonas urbanas para visibilizar sus problemáticas.

El Campamento de Refugio Humanitario es una medida de protección para las comunidades campesinas que ha servido para mitigar y prevenir las vulneraciones. En el marco de la construcción de paz, deben acopiarse las condiciones materiales para su reproducción y mantenimiento toda vez que así se forjan los derechos e identidades por la justicia y el bienestar.

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