Sierra sin minería

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Movilización de la comunidad Arhuaca en Valledupar en contra de la minería.

Comunidades ancestrales de la Sierra más importante del mundo, se niegan a la expansión minera sobre su territorio. Gobierno no renuncia a interés de intervenir el ecosistema

Carolina Tejada Sánchez
@carolltejada 

Por varios días, los pueblos indígenas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta se mantuvieron en movilización social a fin de defender el territorio ancestral de la amenaza minera. Con una concentración frente a la Gobernación del Cesar en Valledupar, y con las sentencias de la Corte Constitucional que instan al Gobierno nacional a la protección de la identidad cultural de este pueblo ancestral, presionaron una mesa de diálogo en la que inicialmente, no fue posible avanzar, pues muchas de las instituciones del Estado, competentes para el tema, no asistieron al llamado, hasta que el pasado 25 de noviembre se instaló la mesa de diálogo de alto nivel.

Desde sus inicios a la mesa de diálogo, los indígenas afirmaron que si los delegados del gobierno no tenían la capacidad política para resolver las solicitudes, presionarían a que ese momento se diera, así lo afirmó la autoridad indígena Leonor Zalabata.

La importancia del territorio

Es la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta el sistema montañoso litoral más alto del planeta y posee todos los pisos térmicos, desde el cálido seco hasta el de nieves perpetuas. Alcanza una altura de 5.775 metros en sus picos nevados, cuenta con una superficie aproximada de 17.000 km². En el año de 1979, la Unesco la declaró Reserva de la Biosfera y Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Su fundamento fue la importancia de la red de ecosistemas que alberga innumerables formas de vida, allí habitan diversos pueblos milenarios y comparten límites con los departamentos de Magdalena, La Guajira y Cesar.

Títulos mineros sobre el territorio

Desde la cosmovisión del Consejo Territorial de Cabildos, constituido por las cuatro organizaciones indígenas representativas de los cuatro pueblos existentes en este territorio, “la Sierra es pensamiento, es realidad, la tarea principal de su existencia es cuidar y velar por que ésta permanezca. (…) todo cuanto se obtenga de la naturaleza genera un desequilibrio”. Por ello, su insistencia en construir entre los humanos y la naturaleza, un equilibrio, y protección de todo lo que ella brinda.

Por ello, la insistencia como Consejo Territorial, de denunciar el incremento de las licencias ambientales sobre la Sierra y los planes de inversión que atenten contra la naturaleza y sus recursos. En diversas ocasiones, más allá de la movilización social como mecanismo de rechazo a estas medidas, han interpuesto demandas y tutelas, que han evitado que dicha forma de atropello con el territorio se imponga. Una de esas demandas, dio como resultado la Sentencia T-849/14 la cual resolvió “conceder los derechos fundamentales a la autodeterminación, a la subsistencia, a la diversidad étnica y a la consulta previa de las comunidades étnicas diferenciadas, objeto de especial protección constitucional, que habitan el territorio sagrado de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta”. Sin embargo, según algunos líderes arhuacos, la existencia de minas y de títulos mineros están en contra vía de dicha sentencia. Hoy día en la Sierra, existen 160 minas, que según mencionan, estarían afectando 332 fuentes de agua. Unos 348 títulos mineros, más la existencia de 285 títulos vigentes y 132 proyectos en marcha. También se habla de cerca de 1.320 solicitudes de títulos y, en convenio con la Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos otros 18 títulos de explotación.

La movilización social

Después de varios días de una movilización social, la cual contó con más de tres mil personas de los diversos pueblos indígenas de la Sierra, se llevó a cabo una mesa de diálogo que estuvo atravesada por la presencia policial y del Escuadrón Móvil Anti Disturbios, Esmad, quien amedranto a los manifestantes. En esta mesa de diálogos que inicio con tropiezos, las partes no satisficieron sus intereses.

Por un lado, el Ministerio de Ambiente aseguro que 585.000 nuevas hectáreas estarían protegidas frente al fenómeno de la minería, mientras que la Confederación Indígena Tayrona habla de 1’600.000 hectáreas, que estarían en riesgo por los avances y las licencias de explotación minera en el territorio. Por ello, el ofrecimiento del ministro Murillo no gusto mucho a los manifestantes, pues no es una simple extensión del territorio la que se ve afectada por las licencias proferidas desde el establecimiento para dichas explotaciones, es todo el territorio, más aun cuando se explica que, cada ecosistema que se afecta tiene repercusiones sobre otros, en el caso de la Sierra, han sido varias las fuentes de agua que se han secado y están en vía de sequía gracias dicha intervención, viéndose afectada no solo las fuentes de agua, sino toda la naturaleza que se beneficia de esta.

Según la Confederación Indígena Tayrona, seguirán en su ejercicio de movilización y buscarán, desde el punto de vista legal, instrumentos jurídicos para lograr la protección de este territorio sagrado.

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