Sergio Guerra presenta el libro Simón Bolívar

318
Sergio Guerra Vilaboy en el lanzamiento de las obras Jugar con fuego y Simón Bolívar.

José Ramón Llanos

Todos los años la Feria del Libro de Bogotá, nos da la oportunidad de tomarle el pulso, al estado del cultivo de las ciencias sociales, especialmente la historia, en la Isla de la Libertad. En esta ocasión el doctor Sergio Guerra Vilaboy, nos permitió conocer dos obras de esta disciplina  publicadas por la Universidad del Magdalena, Colombia, una escrita por Jorge R. Ibarra Cuesta Simón Bolívar, entre Escila y Caribdis y Jugar con fuego. Guerra social y utopía en la Independencia de América Latina, producto de sus investigaciones. Inicialmente haremos referencia a la presentación del primer libro.

Jorge Ibarra es uno de los más destacados historiadores isleños, con una rica producción historiográfica iniciada en los años sesenta con el Manual de Historia de Cuba y las Fuerzas Armadas, posteriormente publicó enjundiosos artículos en revistas y periódicos nacionales e internacionales. Escribió más de quince libros, entre los cuales Ideología mambisa, Nación y cultura nacional; Máximo Gómez contra el Imperio; Patria, etnia y nación; Marx y los historiadores ante la hacienda y la plantación esclavista. Simón Bolívar, entre Escila y Caribdis, es obra póstuma de Jorge Ibarra, quien muriera el 7 de junio de 2017. Este libro fue publicado en el mes de enero de 2018.

Esta obra es la respuesta al libro del historiador canario Manuel Hernández González La guerra a muerte, Bolívar y la Campaña admirable, (1813-1814) ya en una entrevista con el mismo autor en el diario español El Día, “Hernández descubre el perfil cruel de un Bolívar represor”. El autor repite en la entrevista algunos despropósitos sobre el Libertador, entre otras falsedades históricas, afirma que Simón Bolívar llevó a cabo una especie de “limpieza étnica Venezuela”.

El historiador Jorge Ibarra, rectifica estos infundios en el texto comentado, producto de una investigación de más de cien fuentes documentales, que incluye la revisión y cuidadoso estudio de libros y revistas. Los aportes valiosos de esta obra son destacados en el prólogo escrito por Sergio Guerra así: “Con Simón Bolívar, entre Escila y Caribdis, el autor, logra esclarecer la verdad histórica y desmontar todas la falacias tejidas por los enemigos de El Libertador, antiguos y nuevos en torno al arresto de Francisco de Miranda en 1812 y el Decreto de Guerra a Muerte de 1813 refrendado por Bolívar durante la Campaña Admirable que le permitió el establecimiento de la II República de Venezuela”.

La obra está disponible en las librerías de Colombia gracias a la Edición que hiciera la Universidad del Magdalena.

Jugar con fuego

Sergio Guerra también presentó el texto Jugar con fuego. Guerra social y utopías en la Independencia de América Latina. Es una obra sobre historia, que dado el tratamiento del tema, el método utilizado para desarrollarlo, merece catalogarse como un original ensayo.

En la Nota preliminar, el autor nos indica: “Dos son los temas centrales de este libro. Las luchas sociales en la independencia de América Latina (1790.1830) y las aspiraciones de integrar a las antiguas colonias durante el proceso emancipador”. Estos dos temas son desarrollados a lo largo de siete capítulos y una Nota preliminar, en un libro de 308 páginas, que contiene además una bibliografía que le permite al lector inferir el respaldo documental que tienen las tesis planteadas por el autor.

Sergio Guerra amplía, analiza, y trata de demostrar que está bien fundamentado el planteamiento de Martí en su obra “Nuestra América, que la separación de las metrópolis europeas no era el cambio de forma, sino el cambio de espíritu. Por eso, en este texto se pone el acento en las disposiciones revolucionarias y en los programas adoptados durante los años de la emancipación, en los distintos escenarios del continente, las variantes para profundizar las transformaciones del orden existente y su frustración”.

El título Jugar con fuego, es debido a la estrategia de las fuerzas reaccionarias de las metrópolis y las fuerzas conservadoras de las colonias, de tratar de lanzar los pueblos a luchar contra los patriotas independentistas, con lo cual estimulaban la guerra social, que era acercarse al fuego de la revolución y allí quemarse.

El autor también enfatiza el asunto de los propósitos y planes de los líderes de la independencia, por construir con los países emancipados una gran nación, los más empeñados en este difícil objetivo fueron Francisco de Miranda y Simón Bolívar. Las dificultades de este sueño americano, su carácter utópico lo demuestra el hecho que aún más de doscientos años después de la independencia, ni siquiera ha sido posible culminar una unidad siquiera de objetivos político-económicos.

Vale la pena destacar que Sergio Guerra asimiló plenamente las enseñanzas de su maestro en el doctorado de Leipzig, Manfred Kossok, quien al estudiar las revoluciones burguesas del siglo XVIII e inicios del siglo XIX, aplicó con gran solvencia y eficacia las categorías y métodos marxistas. Este dominio del materialismo histórico le permite al autor de Jugar con fuego, analizar los procesos ocurridos en América Latina entre 1790 y 1830, desde la perspectiva de las contradicciones y la lucha de clases, lo cual le hace posible presentarnos un sólido panorama del rol jugado por los intereses económicos y la cuestión social en la historia de las revoluciones liberadoras de nuestro continente.

En esta como en todas las obras de los científicos sociales cubanos, vemos el complejo y rico desarrollo de las ciencias sociales, especialmente la historia, en la Patria de Martí, a partir del triunfo de la Revolución. La lectura de Jugar con fuego le permite al lector apropiare de un período importante de la historia continental, fundamentada en una amplia y bien analizada fuente documental. Además el libro está escrito en tan buen estilo,  que hace de su lectura una aventura amena.

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