Retroceso integracionista

275
El anunciado retiro de Colombia de Unasur, junto a otras cinco naciones, es un golpe a la integración latinoamericana.

Alberto Acevedo

El pasado 10 de agosto, el canciller Carlos Holmes Trujillo, en una rueda de prensa confirmó la intención del gobierno de Iván Duque de retirarse de la Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, Unasur, una ‘decisión política’ que justifica en el hecho de que la organización de integración regional se convirtió en “cómplice de la dictadura venezolana”.

El ministro indicó que el retiro no se protocolizará de inmediato, sino que estará sujeto a un proceso de consultas con otros países miembros del grupo, “que aparentemente desearían tomar el mismo rumbo”.

El expediente de la mentira

El presidente Duque, por su parte, hizo una declaración en el mismo sentido, indicando que “Unasur fue creada por Hugo Chávez para fracturar el sistema interamericano”, y por esta razón es inconveniente que Colombia haga parte de ese organismo multilateral.

Lo que ha hecho el nuevo mandatario colombiano es alinearse en una ‘decisión política’, como afirma su ministro de Exteriores, pero no del lado de los intereses de los pueblos latinoamericanos, sino de la política de Washington, interesada no solo en golpear el proceso bolivariano de Venezuela, sino en desarticular todo el andamiaje de la integración latinoamericana, esa que había nacido al aliento de los gobiernos progresistas de comienzos de siglo.

Y el presidente Duque no tiene inconveniente en mentir, para justificar su postura. No es cierto que el presidente Chávez fuera el creador de Unasur, tampoco que el organismo haya sido concebido para fracturar el sistema latinoamericano. Por el contrario, Unasur se convirtió en la primera organización de concertación regional que incluyó a la zona andina y al cono sur del continente, que siempre desarrollaron procesos de integración de manera separada.

Unasur además involucró en el proceso de integración regional a Chile, que no hacía parte del Mercosur ni de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones, CAN. Vinculó además a Guyana y Surinam. Entonces, antes que fracturar el sistema interamericano, como falazmente lo asegura Iván Duque, lo que hizo fue estatuir el más ambicioso y dinámico proceso de integración a nivel de América del Sur.

Paz y soberanía

Trazó el camino para constituir el Consejo Suramericano de Defensa con la perspectiva de coordinar las doctrinas de defensa de las doce naciones miembros de la organización, animados por una política de paz, sin la influencia de potencias extranjeras y bajo los principios de la preservación de la soberanía nacional. Bajo su influjo se constituyó el Banco del Sur y se puso en marcha una ciudadanía suramericana, que permitía que los ciudadanos de esa comunidad de naciones circularan libremente a través de sus fronteras.

No nos llamemos a engaños. Esa política de defensa de la soberanía, de búsqueda de la integración bajo parámetros de respeto a los intereses nacionales y de rechazo a poderes fácticos extranjeros, incomodó no sólo a las burguesías apátridas de la región, sino a la Casa Blanca, que veía menguada su influencia en la región.

Tras una década de acciones, en que se conformó el bloque político más grande en la historia del continente, bajo un criterio que sus miembros denominaron regionalismo abierto, se precipitaron giros políticos en Argentina, Brasil y Chile, y soterradamente, desde el Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos prosperó una política de debilitamiento de todo el bloque de organismos que representaban esa tendencia progresista: Mercosur, Unasur, el Alba, la Celac.

En favor del modelo neoliberal

El pretexto de la oposición al gobierno de Nicolás Maduro esconde toda una estrategia de vaciamiento del real proceso de integración en  la región, no sólo en América del Sur sino en toda Latinoamérica, golpear a los gobiernos progresistas, intentar de nuevo la estrategia de los ‘golpes suaves’, sin abandonar la posibilidad de una intervención militar directa en Venezuela, y estimular en cambio un relanzamiento de la OEA y de la llamada Alianza del Pacífico, instrumento de la política expansionista de los Estados Unidos.

Es a esta última apuesta a lo que apunta el anuncio del presidente Duque, plegado por completo a los intereses de Washington, y en contra del proceso de integración autónomo y soberano de los pueblos de la región. Es un retroceso político en términos de integración en favor del reforzamiento del modelo de economía neoliberal dependiente.

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