Radiografía del paramilitarismo (I)

174
Para los investigadores, el paramilitarismo sigue siendo una política de Estado. Foto Análisis Urbano, agencia de prensa.

En dos entregas se realizará un informe sobre el paramilitarismo en Colombia después de la dejación de armas de las FARC. La opinión de los defensores de derechos humanos y sus recomendaciones

Hernán Camacho
@camachohernan 

La erradicación del paramilitarismo en Colombia es un asunto de fondo para garantizar la paz estable y duradera, y el ejercicio pleno de la democracia. En un reciente informe sobre el panorama de este fenómeno, las organizaciones sociales y defensoras de derechos humanos, revelan el modo de acción de los grupos paramilitares en los territorios desde la dejación de armas de las FARC-EP.

“Persistencia del paramilitarismo y falta de voluntad estatal para su judicialización y desmantelamiento” es el titulo del extenso informe del mes pasado y que sirve para identificar la magnitud del paramilitarismo hoy en el país y la consecuencia de ello con al menos cien líderes sociales asesinados. Incluso podemos identificar como generadores del desplazamiento de unas 3.189 personas en su mayoría provenientes de la región del Catatumbo, según informó en su boletín mensual la Defensoría del Pueblo.

Complicidad estatal

La fase de recrudecimiento de los actos violentos del paramilitarismo en el último tiempo ha tenido una constante creciente desde la dejación de armas de las FARC-EP y la salida de esa guerrilla de los territorios que antes controlaba. En esas regiones el Estado colombiano no pudo hacer presencia y por tal razón están en manos de las llamadas “bandas criminales”, “Grupos Armados Organizados” y grupos narcotraficantes, que además de ser los dueños de la economía ilegal son una fuerza en armas que regula la vida de las comunidades, imponen políticas restrictivas a la libertad y asesinan a líderes sociales.

“Durante el año 2017 se registraron 106 asesinatos de líderes y defensores y defensoras de derechos humanos, con un incremento del 32,5% de casos, lo que representa la cifra más alta de asesinatos de líderes sociales desde el año 2002, según el Programa Somos Defensores. Para la Defensoría del Pueblo son 286 los líderes sociales asesinados entre enero de 2016 y febrero de 2018”, indican las organizaciones sociales autoras del informe.

Para los defensores de derechos humanos la naturaleza del paramilitarismo tiene un origen en el Estado colombiano auspiciado por una política de enemigo interno que apela a manuales contrainsurgentes para combatir militarmente a las personas y comunidades que se plantan contrarias a las políticas locales y nacionales del gobierno de turno.

Acciones paramilitares

Para los defensores de derechos humanos el paramilitarismo ha venido evolucionando en sus fuentes de financiación y en la extensión de sus acciones violentas. De las prácticas más usuales del paramilitarismo de hoy, luego de la firma de los acuerdos de paz y la falta de implementación de una lucha frontal contra este flagelo, se encuentran: Persecución a defensores y defensoras de DD.HH. y liderazgos sociales, control territorial, práctica contrainsurgente, relación con rentas ilícitas y control de mercados locales, control violento de mercados legales, cooptación de poderes regionales, colaboración con fuerzas armadas del Estado.

La presencia del paramilitarismo ya es en todo el país, incluso en su capital. De acuerdo al XIII Informe “Narco-paramilitarismo” realizado por la fundación Indepaz el primer semestre de 2017 los grupos paramilitares tenían actividad en 274 municipios de 28 departamentos, mostrando una alta intensidad en 165 municipios de 23 departamentos. Un año después la presencia en esas regiones ha aumentado en número de hombres y fuentes de financiación.

“En 5 departamentos, Córdoba, Chocó, Meta, Antioquia y Risaralda, la presencia de grupos narco-paramilitares supera el 50% de sus municipios. Precisamente, estos 5 departamentos concentran el 33% de los homicidios perpetrados contra defensores/as de DD.HH. La situación en Nariño se ha venido agravando en el último año, según informes recientes de la Defensoría del Pueblo, especialmente en las regiones de la Costa Pacífica, el piedemonte costero, los municipios de la cordillera, el occidente de Nariño y los municipios de la frontera con Ecuador”, indica el informe.

Tercera generación paramilitar

El “Clan del Golfo” y las “Autode­fensas Gaitanistas de Colombia” son las bandas paramilitares con mayor número de integrantes y presencia en 22 departamentos y 211 municipios. “Los Rastrojos” con presencia en 27 municipios de 7 departamentos y las “Águilas Negras” con presencia en 24 municipios de 10 departamentos. Las bandas paramilitares que les siguen son “Los Puntilleros”, “Cordillera”, “Los Pachenca” y “La Constru”.

Para los investigadores, el paramilitarismo sigue siendo una política de Estado enmarcada en una madeja de instrumentos jurídicos de todo nivel que aún perviven en el mundo jurídico y político: “Las organizaciones sociales hemos constatado que las normas y manuales contrainsurgentes que ordenan la creación de grupos paramilitares, juntas de autodefensas o estructuras de civiles armados continúan vigentes y no se conocen normas expresas que hayan derogado estas políticas, que han sustentado la doctrina de la seguridad nacional y la concepción del “enemigo interno”. Los cambios anunciados en la publicitada doctrina Damasco no permiten evidenciar que estas directrices hayan sido derogadas, además por el hecho de que la sociedad ha sido excluida del debate sobre la nueva doctrina. Manifestaciones concretas de la pervivencia actual del paramilitarismo como política actual pueden evidenciarse en hechos como los siguientes”.

Impunidad

En cuanto a la impunidad, el estudio señala que cada una de las instancias judiciales, desde la fiscalía hasta las altas cortes, siguen en deuda sobre la responsabilidad de las acciones de los paramilitares, el reconocimiento de responsabilidad y el derecho de las víctimas a la verdad. Pero la institución que más impunidad genera en la cadena judicial es la Fiscalía General de la Nación.

“Al día de hoy no existen avances importantes en la investigación, judicialización y juzgamiento de estos actores. Esta es otra deuda que la Fiscalía General de la Nación tiene con la sociedad y con las víctimas, esto a pesar del grupo especializado de fiscales e investigadores creados a finales del año 2015 con el propósito esclarecer este tipo de criminalidad. Al día de hoy no existen resultados tangibles”, indican los defensores de derechos humanos.

Por ese hecho, las víctimas reclaman que se inicien las acciones judiciales en el marco de la Justicia Especial para la Paz, que puede reconstruir los procesos judiciales, llamar a testimonio a los presuntos responsables y sancionar las conductas después de cumplir el principio de verdad y reparación por esas acciones.

En la próxima entrega señalaremos los deberes que a juicio de los defensores de derechos humanos el estado debe adoptar como políticas públicas para desmontar el paramilitarismo en la sociedad colombiana.

174 Comentarios

  1. Hmm is anyone else experiencing problems with the pictures
    on this blog loading? I’m trying to figure out if its a problem
    on my end or if it’s the blog. Any feedback would be
    greatly appreciated.

  2. Hi there! This is kind of off topic but I need some guidance from an established blog.
    Is it tough to set up your own blog? I’m not
    very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick.
    I’m thinking about making my own but I’m not sure where to begin. Do you have
    any points or suggestions? Cheers

  3. Have you ever considered publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?
    I have a blog based on the same topics you discuss and would love to have
    you share some stories/information. I know my audience would value your work.

    If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.

  4. Great goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely
    fantastic. I actually like what you’ve acquired here, certainly like what you’re saying and the way in which you say
    it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of
    to keep it smart. I can not wait to read far more from you.
    This is really a terrific site.

  5. Excellent site you’ve got here.. It’s hard to find high quality writing like yours nowadays.

    I truly appreciate individuals like you! Take care!!

  6. Wow that was odd. I just wrote an very long comment but after I clicked submit my
    comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyway, just
    wanted to say superb blog!

  7. You are so awesome! I do not suppose I’ve truly read through anything like that before.
    So wonderful to find another person with some original thoughts on this subject matter.

    Seriously.. many thanks for starting this up. This site is one thing that’s needed on the internet, someone with some
    originality!

  8. Nice post. I was checking constantly this weblog and I’m inspired!
    Extremely useful info specifically the closing part 🙂 I take care of
    such info a lot. I used to be looking for this certain information for a very long
    time. Thanks and good luck.

  9. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I quite enjoyed
    reading it, you happen to be a great author.I will be sure to
    bookmark your blog and definitely will come back sometime soon. I want to encourage one to continue your great work, have a nice
    afternoon!

  10. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.
    I don’t know who you are but definitely you are
    going to a famous blogger if you aren’t already 😉 Cheers!

  11. Thank you for some other informative website. The place else could I am getting that type
    of info written in such an ideal way? I’ve a
    undertaking that I’m simply now working on, and I’ve been on the glance out for such information.

  12. It is the best time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy.
    I’ve read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or advice.
    Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article.
    I desire to read more things about it!

  13. I don’t know whether it’s just me or if perhaps everybody else encountering problems with your site.
    It seems like some of the written text within your content
    are running off the screen. Can somebody else please comment and let me know
    if this is happening to them as well? This
    might be a issue with my web browser because I’ve had this happen previously.
    Cheers

  14. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all of us you really recognize what you are talking approximately!
    Bookmarked. Kindly additionally visit my web site =). We could have a
    link exchange arrangement among us

  15. You actually make it appear so easy along with your presentation but I to
    find this topic to be really one thing which I think
    I would never understand. It seems too complex and extremely large for me.
    I’m looking forward to your next publish, I’ll attempt to get the hold of it!

  16. Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are
    you using for this website? I’m getting sick and tired of WordPress because I’ve had problems
    with hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform.
    I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  17. You are so interesting! I do not suppose I’ve truly read anything like this before.
    So good to discover somebody with some unique thoughts on this topic.
    Really.. many thanks for starting this up. This web
    site is one thing that is required on the internet, someone with some originality!

  18. Greetings from California! I’m bored to death at work
    so I decided to check out your website on my iphone during lunch break.

    I enjoy the info you present here and can’t wait
    to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised at how quick your
    blog loaded on my cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI,
    just 3G .. Anyways, great blog!

  19. Pretty nice post. I simply stumbled upon your blog and wished
    to say that I’ve truly loved surfing around your weblog posts.
    In any case I will be subscribing for your rss feed and
    I’m hoping you write again soon!

  20. First off I want to say excellent blog! I had a quick question which I’d like to ask if you don’t mind.

    I was curious to find out how you center yourself and clear your mind before writing.
    I’ve had trouble clearing my mind in getting my ideas out.
    I truly do take pleasure in writing however it just seems
    like the first 10 to 15 minutes are generally lost simply just
    trying to figure out how to begin. Any ideas or tips?

    Kudos!

  21. With havin so much content do you ever run into
    any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement?
    My blog has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either created myself or outsourced but it
    looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over the
    internet without my permission. Do you know any methods to
    help protect against content from being stolen? I’d definitely
    appreciate it.

  22. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems of plagorism
    or copyright violation? My site has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either written myself or outsourced
    but it looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over
    the web without my agreement. Do you know any techniques to help prevent content from being ripped off?
    I’d certainly appreciate it.

  23. Hiya! Quick question that’s totally off topic.
    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?
    My website looks weird when browsing from my iphone.
    I’m trying to find a template or plugin that might
    be able to resolve this issue. If you have any suggestions, please share.
    With thanks!

  24. Hey there I am so grateful I found your weblog, I
    really found you by error, while I was browsing on Yahoo
    for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just
    like to say thanks a lot for a remarkable post
    and a all round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t
    have time to look over it all at the minute but I have book-marked it and
    also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time
    I will be back to read more, Please do keep up
    the fantastic job.

  25. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article.
    I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful info.

    Thanks for the post. I will certainly comeback.

  26. I’ve been surfing online more than 4 hours today, yet
    I never found any interesting article like yours.
    It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all site owners and bloggers made good
    content as you did, the net will be a lot more useful than ever before.

  27. Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I’d figured I’d ask.

    Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe
    guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa?
    My blog covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you are interested feel free to send me an email.

    I look forward to hearing from you! Awesome blog by the way!

  28. You really make it seem really easy together with your
    presentation but I in finding this matter to be actually something that
    I feel I would never understand. It kind of feels too complicated
    and extremely wide for me. I am looking ahead to your next
    publish, I will try to get the cling of it!

  29. I’m really inspired with your writing skills and also with
    the structure in your weblog. Is that this a paid theme or did you customize it your self?
    Anyway stay up the excellent high quality writing, it is rare to peer a nice weblog like this one today..

  30. It’s a pity you don’t have a donate button! I’d without a doubt donate to this brilliant blog!
    I guess for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding
    your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to fresh updates and will share this
    site with my Facebook group. Talk soon!

  31. Fantastic blog! Do you have any hints for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you propose starting with a free platform
    like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m completely confused ..
    Any suggestions? Many thanks!

  32. We’re a gaggle of volunteers and starting a brand new
    scheme in our community. Your web site offered us with useful information to work on.
    You’ve performed a formidable process and our whole neighborhood
    will probably be grateful to you.

  33. I am curious to find out what blog platform you happen to be using?
    I’m experiencing some minor security problems with my latest site and I would like to find
    something more safeguarded. Do you have any solutions?

  34. Hi there, I think your site could possibly be having internet
    browser compatibility problems. Whenever I take a look at your site in Safari,
    it looks fine however, if opening in IE, it has some overlapping
    issues. I just wanted to provide you with a quick heads up!
    Apart from that, excellent website!

  35. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your
    blog. You have some really great articles and I believe I would be a good asset.
    If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write
    some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
    Please blast me an email if interested. Kudos!

  36. I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your website.
    It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to
    come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer
    to create your theme? Exceptional work!

  37. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you design this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz reply as I’m looking to design my own blog and
    would like to find out where u got this from. kudos

  38. Hi, i think that i noticed you visited my site thus i got here to go back the desire?.I
    am trying to find things to improve my website!I suppose its good enough
    to make use of a few of your concepts!!

  39. You’re so interesting! I don’t suppose I’ve read
    anything like this before. So nice to discover somebody with
    a few original thoughts on this subject matter.
    Really.. thanks for starting this up. This web site is one thing that is required on the web,
    someone with a bit of originality!

  40. Good day! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which
    blog platform are you using for this site? I’m getting sick and tired of
    Wordpress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at options for
    another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point me
    in the direction of a good platform.

  41. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but
    I thought this post was good. I don’t know who you are but definitely you’re going to a famous blogger if you aren’t already 😉 Cheers!

  42. Hmm it seems like your blog ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll
    just sum it up what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying
    your blog. I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to everything.
    Do you have any tips for novice blog writers? I’d really appreciate it.

  43. Have you ever considered publishing an e-book
    or guest authoring on other websites? I have a blog centered on the same information you discuss and would really
    like to have you share some stories/information. I know my viewers would appreciate your work.
    If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e-mail.

  44. I was recommended this web site by means of my cousin. I’m no longer positive whether or not
    this publish is written through him as no one else understand such specified about my difficulty.
    You are incredible! Thank you!

  45. Nice blog right here! Additionally your site lots up very fast!
    What web host are you the usage of? Can I get your affiliate link on your host?

    I want my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  46. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article.
    I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more
    of your useful information. Thanks for the post.
    I’ll definitely return.

  47. I am really impressed together with your writing abilities as smartly as with
    the structure to your weblog. Is that this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?

    Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is
    rare to see a nice weblog like this one today..

  48. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it’s truly informative.
    I am gonna watch out for brussels. I’ll appreciate if you continue
    this in future. Many people will be benefited from your writing.
    Cheers!

  49. May I simply say what a comfort to uncover somebody that
    actually understands what they’re discussing online.
    You certainly realize how to bring a problem to light and make it important.
    More people really need to check this out and understand this side of the story.
    I was surprised that you aren’t more popular since you definitely possess
    the gift.

  50. Good day! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers?

    I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any suggestions?

  51. Very great post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say
    that I’ve really loved browsing your weblog posts. In any case
    I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!

  52. This is really attention-grabbing, You are an excessively
    skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and look ahead to seeking more of your magnificent
    post. Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks

  53. Hmm is anyone else having problems with the images on this blog loading?
    I’m trying to determine if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.

    Any responses would be greatly appreciated.

  54. Hi, Neat post. There is an issue together with your website
    in internet explorer, would test this? IE still is the market
    chief and a good component of people will leave out your
    excellent writing because of this problem.

  55. Thanks , I’ve just been searching for information about this
    subject for a while and yours is the best I have discovered
    till now. However, what in regards to the conclusion? Are you sure concerning the supply?

  56. Hello! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several
    weeks of hard work due to no back up. Do you
    have any methods to prevent hackers?

  57. Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this site.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s tough to get that “perfect balance” between usability and appearance.
    I must say you’ve done a fantastic job with this. Additionally, the blog loads very quick for me on Opera.
    Superb Blog!

  58. Howdy great blog! Does running a blog similar to this take a
    massive amount work? I have no understanding of coding however I had been hoping to start
    my own blog soon. Anyways, if you have any suggestions
    or tips for new blog owners please share. I understand this is off topic nevertheless I simply wanted to
    ask. Kudos!

Responder a Dino Cancelar respuesta

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

*