¿Quién dio la orden? O el deber de la verdad y la memoria histórica

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Mitin en la JEP contra el general Mario Montoya.

La campaña por la verdad es un esfuerzo colectivo para ponerle rostro y nombre a los autores de los crímenes atroces, que hoy la justicia transicional se apresta a esclarecer. El mural, hoy censurado, formula una pregunta legítima en la ineludible búsqueda de las víctimas por verdad y justicia

Soraya Gutiérrez Argüello*

Por más de 60 años, la única verdad histórica a la que han accedido las víctimas ha sido la que han tenido que arrebatarle a la impunidad estructural de la justicia colombiana. Tocando las puertas una y otra vez de despachos judiciales, personerías, fiscalías y oficinas gubernamentales encargadas de derechos humanos, han logrado mínimos de reconocimiento y mínimos de verdad judicial.

Por eso la verdad es la gran deuda que dejan 60 años de conflicto armado y violencia sociopolítica, y a la vez el horizonte más importante del proceso de paz para las víctimas, en especial para aquellas que perdieron a sus seres queridos como consecuencia de graves violaciones a los derechos humanos e infracciones al derecho internacional humanitario, cometidas por agentes estatales o con la complicidad de los mismos, o por estructuras paramilitares que actuaron con la anuencia de aquellos.

Campaña por la verdad

En esta sociedad que no reconoce ni se solidariza con todas sus víctimas, pero que tampoco sabe quiénes han sido todos sus victimarios, nació la campaña por la verdad: un esfuerzo colectivo entre 11 organizaciones de derechos humanos y de víctimas de crímenes de Estado para ponerle rostro y nombre a los autores de los crímenes atroces que hoy la justicia transicional se apresta a esclarecer.

La campaña, con riguroso trabajo de hormiga de defensoras y defensores de derechos humanos, ha presentado hasta hoy más de una docena de informes en los que documenta la práctica generalizada de asesinatos de jóvenes presentados falsamente como muertes en combate, reconocida en el derecho internacional como ejecuciones extrajudiciales y popularizada en la opinión pública con el nombre de “falsos positivos”. 5.763 jóvenes asesinados entre 2002 y 2010. Esta cifra está sustentada en el seguimiento que ha hecho el observatorio sobre ejecuciones extrajudiciales de la Coordinación Colombia Europa Estados Unidos, Cceeu, coalición de organizaciones de derechos humanos que también hace parte de la campaña por la verdad.

Y es aquí donde es importante destacar que el mural censurado, la imagen que la sociedad ya hizo suya, ha sido el punto de llegada de este largo camino que han recorrido las víctimas de crímenes de Estado, arañando la verdad judicial para contar alguna vez con una verdad histórica que nos permita reconstruir esta nación rota y establecer garantías de no repetición para ese nunca más que el Estado está obligado a garantizar.

El debate que abre el mural

No se trata entonces de números al azar, pero tampoco son solo cifras. Las 5763 historias ahí plasmadas, son las de jóvenes humildes que buscaban oportunidades laborales, de personas en la marginalidad social o incluso con discapacidad, condenadas a morir para dar un parte de victoria al que dio la orden.

Cada uno de esos oficiales, cuyos rostros hoy ya están en el imaginario colectivo, comandaron unidades militares caracterizadas por el incremento dramático de los casos de ejecuciones extrajudiciales, y actualmente se debate si dieron las órdenes o tuvieron la posibilidad de salvar esas vidas, si pudieron cerrar el grifo de los litros de sangre y no lo hicieron. Las 215 versiones voluntarias rendidas por sus subalternos ante la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz -JEP, confirman que recibieron órdenes, presiones, premios, amenazas; que sus jefes se aliaron con paramilitares para conseguir esos resultados, que circulaban informantes por los batallones entregando cabezas, mientras imperaba el silencio y el miedo.

Ninguno de los comandantes entendió mal. No eran ignorantes, analfabetas o incapaces de distinguir entre un combate y un homicidio. No carecían tampoco de juicio moral. Y así, fueron sumando muertes a su macabra competencia entre batallones, brigadas, divisiones. Así se fue trasladando la práctica de una a otra unidad del Ejército, Y así, cada uno fue acumulando su propia cifra sobre la que debería dar cuenta. En el mural solo figuran cinco de esos nombres, pero son muchos más.

La pregunta legítima del mural

El juez de 13 Civil del Circuito de Bogotá que ordenó al Movimiento de Víctimas de Crímenes de Estado, Movice, integrante de la campaña por la verdad, retirar la imagen de las redes sociales, medios de comunicación y murales, basa su decisión en la inexistencia de fallos judiciales que los condenen y señala que la pregunta que encabeza la imagen es capciosa. El Movice solicitó la nulidad del fallo porque la tutela debe dirigirse a todas aquellas personas y medios que han reproducido el mural. Una vez se haya hecho así, está dispuesto a acatar la decisión.

Ahora bien, el juez también desconoció que la imagen, lo sabemos, no acusa sino interroga, expone hechos ocurridos bajo el mando de dichos comandantes. La pregunta que encabeza el mural no es capciosa sino legítima y se refiere a la responsabilidad por cadena de mando de los altos mandos militares y del comandante supremo de las fuerzas militares.

Y es que detrás de la polémica por el mural, la responsabilidad penal y el derecho al buen nombre que alegan los militares, está el debate sobre la aplicación o no del Artículo 28 del Estatuto de Roma que rige la Corte Penal Internacional, CPI. Allí es claro que dicha responsabilidad es amplia y no se reduce a la participación directa en un hecho, y por el contrario, también abarca situaciones como la falta de adopción de medidas eficaces para detenerlos, cuando tuvieron o debieron tener conocimiento sobre crímenes cometidos por sus subalternos.

La reforma al Acto legislativo 01 de 2017, del Sistema Integral de Verdad Justicia Reparación y Garantías de No Repetición, Sivjrnr, introdujo un obstáculo en este sentido y señaló que se tenían que demostrar una serie de condiciones concurrentes que distorsionan y recortan la responsabilidad que le atañe a cualquier funcionario público o agente estatal en el mundo por la conducta de sus subordinados.

Verdad, justicia y memoria

A pesar de esta tergiversación del derecho internacional, en una de sus visitas, el fiscal delegado de la CPI, James Kirkpatrick Stewart, fue enfático en señalar que la responsabilidad del mando se centra sobre los subordinados y no sobre su conducta, y que la autoridad del superior jerárquico no tiene límites en el tiempo y en el espacio, y por tanto este tribunal estará muy atento al estricto cumplimiento de este estándar internacional con lo cual dependerá de la interpretación de la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz en cada caso.

Y esto lo saben los altos mandos militares que insisten en ser intocables. Lo que no han entendido es que, junto a este nuevo escenario de justicia transicional, también avanza una sociedad en transición que empieza a descubrir lo que pasó. Un país que permaneció al margen mientras avanzaban el paramilitarismo, las masacres y la degradación de los crímenes cometidos en el marco del conflicto armado y la violencia política. Que vivió entre fútbol, reinados y telenovelas el terrorismo de Estado filtrado por la prensa, radio y televisión del Establecimiento.

Hoy hay otro país que entonces no había nacido, que nació en la era Uribe y no conoció más que la seguridad democrática pero también las redes sociales. Jóvenes que se salvaron de ser otro “falso positivo”, o de ser la esposa, la novia, la hermana de uno de ellos. Mujeres que conocieron y volvieron sus referentes a las madres de Soacha como 30 años antes el mundo lo hizo con las Madres de Mayo. Otra generación que se lanza a ese otro escenario en disputa que es la comunicación digital, a levantar el velo de la censura, a ordenar verdad, justicia y memoria para que estos hechos jamás se repitan.

* Vicepresidenta del Colectivo de Abogados José Alvear Restrepo, Cajar.

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