Política, comunicación y estrategia

143

Óscar Sotelo Ortiz

La oportunidad de una nueva gramática política, nos propone Bensaïd, está en un nuevo acto leninista en las condiciones de la globalización imperial, apartándonos de la naturalización de la economía y la promocionada fatalización de la historia. “El pensamiento político de Lenin es el de la política como estrategia, la de los momentos favorables y los eslabones débiles” nos recuerda el filosofo francés, pues el acento está en pensarse y actuar la política como un tiempo de luchas, crisis y derrumbamientos.

Si las revoluciones tienen su propia simetría de aceleraciones y desaceleraciones, su propia geometría de líneas entorpecidas y giros repentinos, el Partido no puede ser la experiencia de una acumulación pasiva. El Partido se convierte en un actor estratégico “una suerte de caja de velocidades para la lucha de clases”. Parafraseando a Walter Benjamín, el tiempo estratégico de la política no es el tiempo homogéneo y vacio de la mecánica, sino un tiempo fracturado, dinámico, de matrices y nodos donde se conectan y se configuran los acontecimientos.

Nuestro Partido Comunista se enfrenta hoy a retos mayúsculos e intempestivos. Sin olvidar nuestra historia y las luchas de 87 años heroicos, el momento nos debe llamar a la reflexión. Alejarnos de la calculadora táctica y la posición autorreferente, flexibilizar la estructura atendiendo a las realidades, a renovar y construir nuestra política estratégica de cara a los nuevos desafíos de la solución política incompleta y la indeclinable tarea de construir paz con cambios desde la gente. Nuestro Partido tiene la oportunidad revolucionaria de cambiar en lo estratégico, en lo político, y por supuesto en lo comunicativo.

El malestar reside en una interpretación equivocada del tema comunicativo dentro de la estructura comunista, su desconocimiento en la articulación con la política y su visión instrumental en la coyuntura. Son por lo menos cuatro debates que creemos se deben asumir en este nuevo escenario, previo, en y después del Congreso Nacional de nuestro Partido, y que queremos problematizar, aportando al debate desde una aproximación teórica y práctica que gira en torno al tema.

La comunicación como disputa

El principal error está en no darle el lugar estratégico que ocupa la comunicación en la configuración actual de modelos de sociedad y sujetos políticos. Vemos el tema como subsidiario, poco relevante y sin prioridad. No entendemos que la hegemonía comunicativa que experimentamos solo puede entenderse desde la tiranía del mercado, “como el motor eficaz de des-enganche e inserción de las culturas – étnicas, nacionales, locales y populares – en el espacio y tiempo del mercado y las tecnologías globales”, siguiendo la reflexión de Jesús Martín Barbero.

La comunicación, como la cultura, es hoy un campo de batalla política. Exige un estratégico escenario de disputa, de construcción de iniciativas que logren recomponer el vínculo social por fuera de las lógicas del valor, el intercambio y la rentabilidad de la hegemonía comunicativa. El Partido no solo está en la necesidad de asumir el debate, sino en la obligación de ser parte activa de esta disputa.

De-codificar el mensaje

El segundo desacierto que se teje sobre el tema, es construir, diseñar y ejecutar la política comunicativa desde el prisma de la clásica fórmula de la agitación y la propaganda. La lógica unidimensional que configura esta fórmula, solo permite un proceso comunicativo lineal, un circuito cerrado de la transferencia del conocimiento codificado, generando rupturas irreconciliables entre el emisor-receptor, dirección-base, Partido-gente.

No somos eficaces en el proceso comunicativo ya que en los elementos de la ecuación, el mensaje político tiene distorsiones que no logran entroncar en la realidad de las mayorías. Nos recuerda Stuart Hall, que si no somos capaces de traducir y transformar (de-codificar) el discurso revolucionario en prácticas sociales, el circuito comunicativo será ineficaz e incompleto. Los comunicados extensos, el discurso políticamente correcto, la propuesta gráfica fosilizada y el lenguaje sin inspiración, nos apartan de la política real, y de paso, de la gente normal.

Nuestro aparato comunicativo

La tradición marxista-crítica entiende los medios de comunicación más allá de la base económica y la interpretación estaliniana de las clases. Si la sociedad funcionalista considera los medios de comunicación como instrumentos de la democracia moderna, el marxismo conjura el problema desde distintas aristas de la cultura, la ideología y el poder; entiende el papel que desempeñan en la construcción de realidades, su función activa en la reproducción social capitalista y el lugar de disputa política en la lucha revolucionaria, que no puede ser otro, que la confrontación desde nuestros aparatos comunicativos populares y alternativos.

El Partido tiene un aparato comunicativo semanal, que con dificultades y problemáticas, se ha mantenido a lo largo de 60 años. Un verdadero lujo para cualquier partido de izquierdas en Colombia y Latinoamérica. El problema es que en la actualidad no se le da su lugar estratégico, se le critican sus contenidos sin aportar en materiales, escritos o apoyos, se le acusa de no modernizar su ejercicio periodístico, y se desentiende de su promoción y sostenimiento. En un escenario donde la batalla ideológica es cada vez más aguda y exigente, el Partido, su dirección y su militancia escriben por cumplir, opinan sin polemizar, aportan sin arriesgarse. Recordar que nuestro aparato comunicativo en la confrontación con los medios hegemónicos es  VOZ, pareciese ser algo retórico e impensado, pero es el primer paso por recuperar el extraviado compromiso militante con el semanario.

El departamento y su lugar estratégico

“Podría decirse que todos los hombres son intelectuales; pero no todos los hombres tienen en la sociedad la función de intelectuales” sentencia Gramsci. Del mismo modo podríamos decir que todos somos comunicadores en la medida que interactuamos a partir del lenguaje y nuestra estructura social, pero no todos tienen la función de comunicar, o por lo menos no en una política comunicativa colectiva. Esta reflexión por supuesto está apartada de la visión que entiende la comunicación como algo exclusivo para los profesionales, pues en la organización, planificación y cualificación de la estructura está la construcción de una función militante que construya una política comunicativa eficiente, acertada e innovadora.

El Partido debe reconocer que en lo comunicativo también existe un viraje en lo estratégico. Entender que tiene potencia en su militancia, pero que la mejor forma de estimular dicha potencia colectiva está en no torpedear los esfuerzos por organizar el departamento de comunicaciones, su nueva propuesta gráfica y su apuesta por irrumpir con ideas renovadas en la política del Partido y del movimiento social. Renovar, potenciar e inspirar, debe ser nuestra línea.

@oscarsopos

Bibliografía

Barbero, Jesús Martin; De los medios a las mediaciones: Comunicación, cultura y hegemonía; Convenio Andres Bello, Bogotá D.C.

Benjamin, Walter; Benjamín, Walter (2010); Tesis sobre la historia y otros fragmentos, edición y traducción de Bolívar Echevarría; Ediciones “Desde abajo”; Bogotá DC

Bensaïd, Daniel; “Leaps! Leaps! Leaps!: Lenin and Politics”, en International Socialism, no. 95, Julio 2002.

Hall, Stuart; Codificar/Decodificar, En: Culture, Media, Language. Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972-79. Londres, Routledge & The CCCS University of Birmingham, 1996.

Gramsci, Antonio; La formación de los intelectuales; En Antología, selección traducción y notas de Manuel Sacristán. Siglo Veintiuno Editores. España.

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