Pliego de peticiones empresariales: ¿Qué más piden los señores?

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El presidente Iván Duque junto con la vicepresidenta, Martha Lucía Ramírez, en el Consejo Gremial Nacional.

Carlos Fernández*

A raíz de la elección de Duque en las pasadas elecciones, los sectores empresariales agrupados en el Consejo Gremial Nacional (CGN) presentaron al presidente electo un documento denominado Reactivación económica 2018-2022. Propuestas del CGN para el presidente Duque y su equipo, el cual no es otra cosa que el pliego de peticiones que los capitalistas del país le hacen a la nueva administración que se posesionó el 7 de agosto. El ambiente en el que se presentó el documento no podía ser más propicio para los representantes del gran capital. En las elecciones no sólo fue elegido el candidato del CGN sino que éste mostró durante la campaña una predisposición particular de favorecer los intereses de estos empresarios cuyos capitales están estrechamente subordinados a los intereses del capital transnacional.

El consenso sobre lo prioritario

El documento está estructurado en dos capítulos. El primero constituye un llamado al nuevo gobernante para que acepte como prioritarios los puntos del diagnóstico hecho por los empresarios sobre la situación económica del país. Lo llaman el consenso sobre lo prioritario, que guarda, envidiosamente, una cierta reminiscencia del acuerdo sobre lo fundamental que proponía el candidato Gustavo Petro. Los asuntos que preocupan a los grandes empresarios del país y sobre los que buscan consenso con el gobierno son: i) el bajo nivel de la productividad y de la competitividad de la economía, determinado por la informalidad empresarial y laboral, determinada, a su vez por cargas no salariales y tributarias que la fomentan; ii) el elevado y creciente desequilibrio fiscal del gobierno nacional provocado, según los gremios empresariales, no sólo por la baja en los precios del petróleo sino, también, por la dependencia de los entes territoriales respecto al gobierno nacional para la financiación de sus gastos; iii) el ingreso a la OCDE es positivo porque, entre otras cosas, obliga a generar crecimiento sostenido, combatir la pobreza (para lo cual es necesario reducir los crecientes subsidios que otorga el gobierno a la población registrada en el Sisbén y en otros programas asistenciales), lograr la sostenibilidad ambiental, fortalecer la institucionalidad, en particular la relacionada con la justicia; iv) lucha contra la corrupción, patente en los procesos de contratación pública y, según el CGN, en la persistencia de los cultivos ilícitos; v) respeto a la propiedad privada y a la economía de mercado, afectadas, según los peticionarios, por la existencia de derechos como el de la consulta previa a la ejecución de proyectos que afectan los territorios y por las «vías de hecho» con que se adelanta la protesta social, y vi) preocupa a los empresarios el impacto sobre la economía colombiana que tiene la reciente y creciente migración de venezolanos hacia nuestro país.

Sobre la importancia de los temas que propone el Consejo para que el gobierno los declare prioritarios dentro de las políticas que adopte, puede haber acuerdos, si bien todos son abordados dentro de una perspectiva que tiende a lograr el blindaje de los intereses empresariales, que son identificados, mecánicamente, como los intereses del país. Brillan por su ausencia temas relacionados con la concentración de la tierra, el fortalecimiento de la industria y de la agricultura en un entorno que le dé ventajas a la producción nacional sin excesos proteccionistas pero sin aperturas ilimitadas, las condiciones en que los trabajadores adelantan su actividad económica, la minería ilegal y un largo etcétera que muestra lo limitado de la mirada de los capitalistas sobre el funcionamiento económico.

Pero la gran discusión se da alrededor del segundo capítulo del documento, que incluye las políticas que los empresarios le proponen al gobierno para superar los problemas identificados en el consenso sobre lo prioritario. Es decir, sin restar importancia a la discusión del diagnóstico, la discusión sobre el cómo resolver los problemas se vuelve fundamental porque son las políticas que se adelanten las que van a tocar las condiciones de vida y de trabajo de la gente.

Contenido del pliego de peticiones empresarial

Partiendo del incompleto y distorsionado diagnóstico presentado en el primer capítulo, los patrones del país le proponen al gobierno que adelante las siguientes políticas para elevar la productividad y la competitividad, para reducir la brecha fiscal, para cumplir con los compromisos derivados del ingreso a la OCDE y los objetivos del desarrollo sostenible, para combatir la corrupción y, en fin, para resolver el cúmulo de problemas descritos en el primer capítulo.

1)            En materia tributaria. Al respecto, los empresarios critican la estructura tributaria por «compleja, ineficiente y fuente de incertidumbre», por violar el principio de equidad vertical y horizontal, por no contribuir a una mejor distribución del ingreso, por la multiplicidad de impuestos territoriales y por otras razones largas de enumerar. Proponen, en consecuencia, una reforma que incluya, entre otras cosas que dejamos de lado por razones de espacio: a) Disminuir el impuesto de renta de las empresas del 33% al 28%. Fundamentan esta propuesta en una supuesta elevada tasa de tributación de las empresas, dato revaluado por una investigación del Banco de la República que plantea que la tributación efectiva del capital fue, en el promedio de 1994 a 2016, de 15,4%; b) Ampliar el universo de personas naturales obligadas a declarar renta, pasando de los que ganan 4,1 salarios mínimos a los que ganan 2,5 salarios mínimos, lo que constituiría un golpe a amplios sectores de ingresos bajos del país; c) Eliminar el gravamen a los movimientos financieros, algunas exenciones e impuestos territoriales.

2)            En materia laboral y pensional. Las propuestas son reiterativas: a) Eliminar los aportes patronales a la salud, al SENA y al ICBF, lo que ya habían conseguido,  parcialmente, en la penúltima reforma tributaria; b) Establecer sistemas flexibles de contratación laboral que incluyan la tercerización y la garantía de estabilidad sólo para las personas discapacitadas; c) Controlar el crecimiento del salario mínimo; d) Reducir la tasa de reemplazo (porcentaje que representa la pensión respecto al promedio del salario de los últimos 10 años); e) Reducir la pensión del sobreviviente del 100% al 80 o 70 por ciento; f) Eliminar el régimen de prima media y dejar sólo el de ahorro individual, etc. Pareciera que la llegada de Duque al gobierno va a permitir que los grandes empresarios colombianos cumplan su sueño de modificar de raíz el régimen pensional en beneficio del sector financiero.

3)            En materia de educación y salud. Buscan los empresarios, a grandes rasgos, limitar el sistema educativo a las solas necesidades de la producción y de las empresas y seguir apuntalando el régimen de salud en el funcionamiento de las EPS, eliminando responsabilidades de las empresas en materia de licencias e incapacidades.

4)            En materia de infraestructura. La propuesta central es que el Estado asuma la responsabilidad de suministrar este bien público, que controle las consultas previas pero que amplíe las alianzas público-privadas a la construcción de infraestructura de salud y educación.

Las propuestas abarcan, además, los servicios públicos domiciliarios y las TIC y apuntan a apalancar lo existente en materia de energía, agua y gas. En próximo artículo, haremos referencia a las propuestas sobre tierra y ordenamiento territorial y a las referidas al comercio exterior.

* Economista

2 Comentarios

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