Planear es tan viejo como el ser humano

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Aspectos importantes sobre el estudio crítico de la planeación

Hoy en los ámbitos empresariales, privados, públicos o de economía solidaria, en las organizaciones sociales, políticas o culturales de diverso tipo, grandes o pequeñas, se plantea la importancia de la planeación estratégica y la necesidad de conocer sus principios, métodos, etc.

En el campo popular no somos ajenos a estas preocupaciones, al contrario, en su larga tradición de organización y lucha, la preocupación por la planeación ha estado presente y en su desarrollo tenemos acciones, aportes y diferenciaciones. Como las teorías y metodologías no son neutrales, ni anda cada una por su lado, queremos llamar la atención de nuestros lectores sobre algunos aspectos importantes para su estudio y apropiación critica.

Origen y desarrollo

Planear es tan viejo como el ser humano mismo, y su necesidad de organizarse para producir para la satisfacción de sus necesidades y su reproducción como especie. Pero con la expansión del capitalismo por el mundo, la necesidad de teorizar sobre la organización y la planeación fue cobrando importancia, ante el acicate de la organización de la producción en gran escala, de grandes estados nacionales y más grandes estados coloniales, y tenemos ya en la transición europea del siglo XIX al XX,  cuando el capitalismo entra en su fase monopólica, la aparición de las teorías organizacionales, y de planeación.

En su primera etapa van a tener como referente o modelo, la máquina, máxima adquisición tecnológica de la era del capitalismo industrial, que se define desde la perspectiva organizacional como: un conjunto de elementos con funciones específicas, que interactúan entre sí, para el logro de un objetivo; sus principales adquisiciones son los manuales de funciones de cada elemento, las jerarquías representadas en los organigramas y los diagramas y normas de procedimiento. Y en la planeación normativa lo central es la exigencia de responder qué se va a hacer; cuando, dónde, cómo, con qué o quiénes, incluidas algunas preguntas subsidiarias (por qué, para qué, escenarios, metas, etapas y formas de control; recursos, flujos de los mismos, puntos, de equilibrio, tasas de retorno, criterios de eficacia, eficiencia, etc.).

Del modelo mecánico, al modelo biológico.

Con las crisis cíclicas (de corta y larga duración) del capitalismo entran en crisis estos paradigmas, al resultar insuficientes para dar respuesta a las exigencias de las crecientes problemáticas en desarrollo, y va a emerger un nuevo modelo o referente: la célula, que como la máquina tiene partes con funciones específicas, que interactúan entre sí para el logro de un objetivo, pero que además interactúan con el medio ambiente.

La variable biológica, dispara la formulación de nuevas teorías organizacionales y el desarrollo mismo de las teorías de sistemas; las adquisiciones de la planeación normativa, quedan incorporadas como un momento, pero se indaga cómo el medio ambiente, la presencia de otros actores y factores, favorables y desfavorables, actúa sobre el plan, sus metas, métodos de realización, recursos etc., y exige seguimiento, control y reajustes. Y se rescatan adquisiciones importantes que se habían hecho en un tipo de planeación específica, la militar, oficio igualmente viejo, y que había conocido desarrollos importantes en las guerras coloniales, y las guerras entre las potencias por el reparto del mundo. La diferenciación entre lo táctico o estratégico, lo operativo, corresponde a la tradición castrense y pasa a las teorías de planeación en todos los órdenes. En esa planeación inevitablemente había que tener en cuenta al otro, el escenario, etc., el medio ambiente en un sentido amplio, y las características propias.

Y así conquista la planeación estratégica, en el ámbito de las teorías de planeación el ser hoy referente obligado.

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