Piden reforma al Sistema de Participaciones

321
Movilización de maestros reclamando recursos para la educación.

Cambiar la fórmula de asignación de recursos y luchar contra la corrupción son los reclamos de la Contraloría para superar la desigualdad en Colombia

Hernán Camacho
@camachohernan 

Con el Acto Legislativo 01 de 2001, se modificaron los artí­culos 356 y 357 de la Constitución y se dio vía libre al Sistema General de Participaciones, SGP, para transferir recursos públicos a los sectores de salud, educación y saneamiento básico a las entidades territoriales, departamentos y municipios, sin sobrepasar la salvaguarda fiscal que impone una restricción a los recursos destinados a la inversión social. Desde ese año, las organizaciones sociales, sindicales y algunas autoridades locales advirtieron que la nueva fórmula de asignación de recursos profundizaría la desigualdad en el país.

Y es que el Sistema, contrario a ampliar los recursos para financiar inversiones en infraestructura social, es decir, la construcción y el mantenimiento de hospitales, acueductos, colegios, entre otros, no ha logrado que el país reduzca la brecha de pobreza entre las regiones y los territorios, entre las capitales de departamento y Bogotá, ahondando la pobreza multidimensional en el país.

Casi tres décadas después del cambio de modelo de asignación de recursos de Participaciones los resultados son precarios, sobre todo a la hora de verificar la correcta asignación de los mismos, es decir, las dos principales razones para que la brecha social siga ampliándose son los reducidos recursos sociales para las regiones y la corrupción de las autoridades locales. Para la Contraloría General de la República, los recursos del Sistema no cumplen su objetivo y no se está verificando su destinación real. Esta conclusión se desprende del estudio denominado: Efecto retributivo del Sistema General de Participaciones, que presentó el jefe del ente de control, Edgardo Maya Villazón.

El estudio comparó la desigualdad entre la capital del país con otras capitales de departamento a las que les transfieren una menor cantidad de recursos a pesar de tener mayores necesidades.  “Existen territorios en nuestro país, con índices de desarrollo humano similares al de países europeos de desarrollo medio-alto; mientras ello sucede, otras regiones del país presentan indicadores de desarrollo solamente comparables con los países más pobres del planeta”, señaló Edgar Maya Villazón.

Las diferencias son abismales: la capital del país mantiene una tasa de pobreza en un porcentaje del 4,7%, en la región pacífica la pobreza asciende a 33,8% y en la región caribe la pobreza llega a 31,2%. Las razones para la inequidad en buena parte, dice el Contralor, se deben en un alto grado a corrupción que se vive en estas regiones y al diseño de política pública de asignación de recursos, pues con el actual sistema los municipios más pobres deberían recibir recursos notoriamente mayores a los de los municipios más ricos, debido a que estos últimos pueden generar recursos propios para los programas de salud, educación y saneamiento básico.

“Se hace necesario plantear una revisión de los criterios de distribución para todo el SGP, teniendo en cuenta que las condiciones de los sectores han cambiado frente a la situación que existía hace 15 años, al igual, que las políticas, prioridades y retos sectoriales”, indica una de las recomendaciones del estudio.

La autoridad fiscal le adjudica a la corrupción el crecimiento de los índices de pobreza. Pues si bien los mínimos recursos para salud y educación se mantienen, y en determinados años crecen las trasferencias, los resultados en reducción de pobreza son precarios. El cartel de la hemofilia y la suplantación de alumnos para captar mayores recursos son algunos de los ejemplos que retratan las acciones de las autoridades locales en las regiones más deprimidas de los territorios, con el fin de apropiarse indebidamente de los recursos.

“Con ocasión de la terminación del periodo de transición prorrogado con el Acto Legislativo 04 de 2007, es importante considerar una evaluación del SGP en todos sus ámbitos que permitan un mayor grado de convergencia entre discurso político y realidad concreta, queda entonces planteada la necesidad de una posible reforma al Sistema”, señala el estudio.

Una reforma que sea capaz de adecuarse a las nuevas realidades territoriales del país. La implementación de los acuerdos de paz y en su efecto la entrada en vigencia de los Planes Especiales de Desarrollo con Enfoque Territorial, PDET, implica que los recursos destinados a la salud se articulen a las necesidades, prioridades y políticas públicas que se desprenden de los planes especiales de desarrollo.

Concluye la Contraloría: “Existe una oportunidad interesante para el desarrollo social y económico de ciertas zonas del país con el postconflicto, en donde el SGP debe contribuir en el mejoramiento las condiciones de vida de sus pobladores. La conjunción de estos recursos, las regalías, la ayuda internacional, los recursos de la nación destinados a la construcción de la paz, todos a una, y vigilados por los organismos de control deben ser oportunidad para un verdadero despegue social, de las zonas más atrasadas y necesitadas del país”.

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