Oro negro, fuente de energía, discordia o desastre

221

Bianca Lizzeth Viatela Carrascal

El petróleo y sus múltiples derivados, constituyen sangre vital para el “desarrollo” de la economía mundial. Asumido como energía primaria, aumenta la productividad ya que en él se sustentan todas las actividades económicas; como aceite mineral inflamable y recurso natural no renovable, es susceptible de agotarse en sus reservas para un futuro, generando así, gran expectativa para el capitalismo y su sistema organizado. En su actividad1, la institución más importante en la producción del combustible es la Organización de Países Exportadores de Petróleo (OPEP) conformada en 1960, inicialmente por 5 países, (Irak, Irán, Kuwait, Arabia Saudita y Venezuela), posteriormente agregándose 7 países más: Nigeria, Libia, Qatar, los Emiratos Árabes Unidos, Libia, Indonesia, Argelia y Gabón;  con el objetivo de proteger intereses de los países petroleros, para enfrentar juntos, aquellos otros que forman parte del mercado del petróleo; la OPEP controla  la mayor parte de producción mundial, generando controversia, señalándose de formar un monopolio y determinar de forma unilateral los precios del barril. Existen otros países (grandes productores) como México, Rusia y Noruega, que no forman parte de la OPEP pero son productores y exportadores de este combustible fósil. Los15 países más ricos en petróleo actualmente son (Ver tabla).

Datos relevantes

Decisiones estratégicas sobre este combustible por países productores, influyen en casi todos los componentes comerciales del costo de vida, involucrándose de manera directa e indirecta sobre todos los productos consumidos. Cuando sube el precio del petróleo se produce un alza de costos comerciales generales en casi todos los sectores productivos, reflejándose en los precios. Siendo2 Estados Unidos el país con mayor disminución de sus reservas, y descenso de producción en los últimos diez años; tendencia que asciende, dependiendo cada vez más de la importación del crudo. Europa es el continente que menos produce a nivel mundial con 6,8 mb/d. y China es el país más consumidor de petróleo.

Dentro del trayecto histórico, el precio del petróleo ha sufrido una evolución marcada por distintas circunstancias sociopolíticas y económicas. Los mayores precios del petróleo han ido acompañados de distintas guerras, afectando de manera drástica a los países productores. Vemos que3 actualmente en Colombia, las cifras del Banco de la República, refieren que, de los US$2.685 millones que el país recibió de inversión extranjera directa en el segundo semestre, US$1.000 millones fueron para el sector petrolero, lo que traduce que el petróleo sigue siendo líder en las inversiones extranjeras.

Implicaciones

De 450 campos petroleros en Colombia4, el 4,4% concentra el grueso de la producción; 20 campos producen 2/3 partes (66%) del total de las áreas productivas; de aquellas zonas, 6 se localizan en el departamento del Meta, 5 en Casanare y 2 en Arauca; teniendo la producción general 10 departamentos. En proyección, el negocio del petróleo en Colombia está bien prospectado; pero ¿qué tanto bienestar puede traer esto al país y al planeta? Siendo un negocio de miles de ceros a la derecha, difícilmente se habla claro de sus repercusiones, dado que los carteles del producto, son mafias capitalistas poderosas; pero hablando desde la verdad, el ejercicio petrolero conlleva un grave daño degenerativo para el medio ambiente. Es comprobado científicamente5 que la extracción de petróleo y gas está relacionada con la desestabilización de la tierra; expertos demuestran su participación en el origen de centenares de sismos, pero el tema es tan delicado6 que la opinión pública prefiere ignorar. ¿Hasta qué punto debe enfermar el planeta, para reaccionar, a qué tipo de bienestar renunciamos por la avaricia de unos cuantos, acaso tiene más valor el sentido capitalista que el bienestar natural de la tierra? ¿Un bienestar a corto plazo es más importante que la estabilidad sana de nuestro bien vivir? Preguntas sobran, faltan respuestas y acciones; hacer consciencia de lo que está aconteciendo es el primer paso, la lucha no será fácil, solo es ver hacia atrás para analizar las guerras que se han propiciado, mientras tanto el planeta enferma y las personas mental y físicamente también.

1 http://www.ecoticias.com/medio-ambiente/133919/Como-afecta-al-Medio-Ambiente-extraccion-combustibles-fosiles

2 https://www.taringa.net/posts/info/9131549/La-importancia-del-petroleo-en-el-mundo-actual.html

3 http://www.dinero.com/economia/articulo/sector-petroleo-el-de-mas-inversion-extranjera-en-colombia/250579

4 http://www.eltiempo.com/economia/sectores/los-20-campos-petroleros-de-colombia-con-mayor-produccion-84750

5 http://www.upsocl.com/verde/confirmado-el-proceso-utilizado-para-extraer-petroleo-puede-provocar-terremotos-y-sismos/ 

6 http://www.publico.es/ciencias/terremotos-causa-petroleo.html

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