Orígenes de la Liga Comunista y de su Manifiesto

979
Carlos Marx y Federico Engels.

Álvaro Oviedo

Durante mucho tiempo no hubo más fuente para indagar los orígenes de la Liga Comunista que el informe policíaco del estado Prusiano titulado Las conspiraciones comunistas del siglo XIX. El folleto publicado por Marx, en 1853, Las revelaciones del proceso de los comunistas de Colonia, poniendo al desnudo las falsificaciones, no tuvo difusión en la época, pues fue decomisado. La obra contra el señor Vogt, publicada por Marx en 1860, registra una serie de datos de interés sobre la Liga. En 1885 Engels reedita Las revelaciones …y le antepone una detallada introducción que titula “Datos para la historia de la Liga Comunista”, que incluye sus aportes testimoniales.

En estos materiales y en la correspondencia mantenida por Marx y Engels en aquellos años se basan todos los investigadores marxistas: Franz Mehring, Gustavo Mayer, Carlos Grûnberg, David Riazanov, para exponer los orígenes, desarrollo y vicisitudes de la Liga Comunista, nos dice Wenceslao Roces, en su introducción a la Biografía del Manifiesto Comunista.

Secta secreta

La citada biografía incluye en su apéndice, además, un número de la Revista Comunista de Londres, órgano de la Liga Comunista, y la publicación de dos proclamas de la Liga de los Justicieros. Los estatutos de la Liga y dos documentos redactados por Engels, uno sobre los movimientos revolucionarios de 1847, y Principios del comunismo, entre otros.

Según datos contenidos en la mencionada introducción, en 1834, unos cien inmigrantes alemanes en París formaron una secta secreta, integrada en su mayoría por artesanos, denominada la Liga de los proscritos. Sus objetivos eran democráticos republicanos, al igual que otras sociedades políticas francesas de la época, con las cuales mantenían contacto al igual que con Alemania. En sus estatutos se señalaba como finalidad “la emancipación de Alemania, la instauración y defensa de la igualdad política y social, y los postulados de la libertad, la virtud civil, y la unidad nacional”.

En 1836 se escindió esta sociedad. Los elementos más decididos y radicales, que eran la gran mayoría se reunieron bajo la dirección de Guillermo Schuster, un antiguo profesor universitario de Gottinga, con el nombre de la Liga de los Justicieros, que no tardó en crecer, manteniendo sus ideales igualitarios y conspirativos, aunque poco a poco crecía en ella la preocupación por la propaganda.

Según el testimonio de Arnold Ruge, en su obra Dos años en París. Estudios y recuerdos, publicada en 1846, su organización se dividía en comunas, formadas por diez individuos, cada diez comunas integraban un distrito, los representantes de estos el atrio, y que al frente de este, formado por elementos de su seno, estaba un comité directivo, a quien incumbía la dirección ideológica de la Liga, con un comité adjunto que desempeñaba funciones de control.

Entre sus afiliados se destacaban Carlos Schapper, Enrique Bauer y el sastre Guillermo Weitling, primer ideólogo del proletariado alemán, salido de sus filas, al igual que Proudhon lo fue para Francia. En la fracasada “intentona” de mayo de 1839, la Liga de los Justicieros hizo causa común con la conspiración de Blanqui y Barbés, y compartió su suerte, pagando prisión y exilio. La mayoría se trasladó a Londres, otros a Suiza, su centro, al reorganizarse quedó en Londres y sus principales activistas fueron Carlos Schapper, Enrique Bauer y José Moll; Weitling había ido a parar a Suiza. Engels los conoció en Londres en 1843, y registró así su impresión: “Eran los primeros revolucionarios que me echaba a la cara, y aunque nuestras ideas, por entonces no coincidieron del todo, ni mucho menos, pues frente a su mezquino comunismo igualitario, yo abrigaba todavía, a la sazón, una buena dosis de jactancia filosófica no menos mezquina, jamás olvidaré la impresión imponente que me causaron aquellos tres hombres de verdad cuando apenas empezaba a dejar de ser un chiquillo”.

Mezcla de ideas

Las expulsiones y persecuciones se repetían por los diferentes gobiernos y en su inmensa mayoría los expulsados se convertían en los nuevos países en emisarios del movimiento.

En tales condiciones Marx y Engels reunidos en Bruselas, completaban las bases de su nueva teoría revolucionaria, pero ésta no se abriría paso sino mediante una recia lucha en el terreno de las ideas, frente a las tradiciones que arrastraba el movimiento obrero en medio de sus heroicas luchas, donde imperaba una mezcolanza de ideas, prejuicios, utopías y sentimientos de indignación.

Esto se refleja tanto en la crítica a la variedad de expresiones teóricas que se reclamaban del socialismo, reseñada en la segunda parte de la Ideología alemana como en la breve caracterización incluida en el Manifiesto Comunista, así como en la focalizada crítica a Proudhon en la Miseria de la Filosofía (1847). Para esta lucha Marx formó en Bruselas con Engels, Guillermo Wolf y otros, la Asociación de Cultura Obrera, que todavía cuando escribió su libro (1860), contra Vogt funcionaba, según queda expresado en el mismo texto. Era un centro de cultura y propaganda comunista, que tenía por eje la nueva concepción. Privados de órgano en la prensa, deciden crear un “comité comunista de correspondencia” para mantenerse en contacto con los centros de propaganda comunista y radical de Europa.

En enero de 1847 el Comité Central de la Liga mandata a José Moll para que se traslade a Bruselas para negociar con Marx y Engels su ingreso a la Liga, expresando que compartían sus ideas en general, y la necesidad de emancipar a la liga de las viejas tradiciones y formas conspiratorias. Y se les ofrecía la posibilidad de participar en la reorganización de la Liga, que ambos consideraban necesaria, y exponer los principios del comunismo crítico, en el manifiesto que sería asumido como documento oficial de la Liga en el próximo congreso.

Marx y Engels aceptaron la propuesta, el congreso previsto para enero se realizó en junio de 1847, en él se asumió el nombre de Liga Comunista se reorganizó en comunas, círculos, círculo directivo, Comité Central y Congreso. Todas las autoridades debían ser elegidas y podían ser revocadas en cualquier momento. Los estatutos y principios se mandaron a discusión de las comunas para su definitiva aprobación en el segundo congreso en diciembre del mismo año. En él se aprobaron los estatutos, se defendieron los principios de la nueva teoría y vencidas todas las resistencias se encargaron a Marx y Engels de la redacción del Manifiesto Comunista.

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