Nicanor Parra, el antipoeta delirante

138
Nicanor Parra.

José Luis Díaz-Granados

Nicanor Parra era un milagro viviente hasta el pasado 22 de enero cuando decidió abandonar su residencia terrestre y penetrar el misterio. Había nacido en San Fabián de Alico -comuna chilena que limita por el oriente con la nación argentina y por el norte con el pueblo de Parral, donde una década atrás había nacido su amigo Pablo Neruda-, el 5 de septiembre de 1914, apenas un mes de haberse iniciado la Primera Guerra Mundial.

Poeta, antipoeta, ingeniero, físico y profesor de mecánica cuántica, Nicanor Parra Sandoval era el mayor de una tribu luminosa de artistas, entre los cuales descollaron de manera estelar Violeta -la célebre cantautora de Gracias a la vida, madre de Isabel y Ángel Parra, conocidos cantantes de música de protesta-, Óscar, Lalo y Lautaro, intérpretes de cuecas y de números circenses, Hilda y Roberto.

Desde muy joven, Nicanor sintió devoción ferviente por la obra de William Shakespeare, llegando a convertir a Hamlet en el emblema de su vida, “su desafío y obsesión”.

Ruptura con cánones tradicionales

En 1937 publicó su primer libro de poemas, Cancionero sin nombre, de reminiscencias lorquianas, que muy pronto repudió. Tuvieron que pasar diecisiete años para que diera a la luz su segundo libro, Poemas y antipoemas, y fuera reconocido por la crítica como una obra de inmensa riqueza imaginativa y verbal. Por su ruptura con los cánones tradicionales e irónica expresión ante lo cotidiano, fue comparado con Suenan timbres (1926), del colombiano Luis Vidales y con Paroles (1946), del francés Jacques Prevert.

El mundo moderno es una gran cloaca:

Los restoranes de lujo están atestados

de cadáveres digestivos

A lo largo de 75 años de incesante producción lírica, Parra publicó libros de una delirante versatilidad como La cueca larga, Versos de salón, Canciones rusas, Obra gruesa, Artefactos, Sermones y prédicas del Cristo de Elqui, Poema y antipoema para Eduardo Frei, Ecopoemas, Hojas de parra y Poemas para combatir la calvicie, entre otros.

Por sus ambiguas posiciones políticas, Parra fue objeto de feroces ataques en los años 60 y 70, pero de manera especial, cuando aceptó tomar el té con la señora Nixon en la Casa Blanca, en momentos en que los bombardeos norteamericanos a Vietnam, Laos y Camboya llegaban su punto más alto de crueldad y barbarie.

“Yo soy arribista”

Parra intentó aplacar las iras con chistes a manera de chascarrillos: “Cuba sí, yanquis también”, decía, pero de nada le sirvió. Casa de las Américas en La Habana le retiró la invitación para que fuera jurado del premio de poesía y el periódico El Siglo, órgano del Partido Comunista de su país, escribió: ¡No se visita impunemente la Casa Blanca en los días de Vietnam y Camboya! Intelectuales de izquierda como Carlos Droguett lo tacharon de “mediocre” y “bazofia humana”.

Años antes, cuando murió Violeta Parra, le preguntaron en que se diferenciaban los dos y Nicanor respondió: “En que Violeta es abajista y yo soy arribista”.

La amplia labor literaria de Nicanor Parra le mereció incontables premios y reconocimientos como la Beca Guggenheim en 1972, el Premio “Richard Wilbur” en los Estados Unidos, Doctor Honoris Causa, de Brown University, Honorary Fellow en Oxford University, el Premio de Literatura Juan Rulfo, el Reina Sofía de Poesía Iberoamericana, el Premio Cervantes y el Premio Iberoamericano de Poesía Pablo Neruda.

Con su muerte, a le edad de 103 años, se cierra el más importante ciclo de universalidad poética de Chile, con nombres como Gabriela Mistral, Vicente Huidobro, Pablo Neruda, Pablo de Rokha, Gonzalo Rojas y el propio Nicanor Parra.

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