Un mundo sin Theotonio Dos Santos


Uno de los fundadores del Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales-Clacso, y de los autores más destacados de los teóricos de la dependencia

Liliana Pardo Montenegro*
Especial para VOZ

Se fue al otro mundo. El 27 de febrero de 2018, falleció en Rio de Janeiro, Theotonio Dos Santos, gran intelectual continental. Uno de los fundadores del Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales-Clacso, y de los autores más destacados de los teóricos de la dependencia. Su trayectoria en la formación de estudiantes en las universidades de América Latina deja una legión de seguidores de sus producciones académicas. Comprometido con la realidad de los pueblos y el pensamiento económico crítico, en el estudio de las clases sociales y las diferencias entre el centro y la periferia del sistema capitalista.

Theotonio Dos Santos, nos deja una obra que ha sido leída en distintos cursos de economía, sociología, historia y ciencia política. Destacar los textos que recomendara Claudio Katz en su seminario “Controversias actuales sobre la Teoría de la Dependencia”: Dos Santos, Theotonio (1978) Imperialismo y dependencia; (1998) La teoría de la dependencia y el sistema mundial; (1998) La teoría de la dependencia un balance histórico y teórico. Al igual que su libro: (1972) Concepto de Clases Sociales, son debates marxistas con rigor científico, llegados como documentos de estudio a las aulas de las Facultades de Economía, Ciencias Sociales y Filosofía de la Universidad de Buenos Aires; como en la Facultad de Derecho, Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Humanidades y Ciencias Económicas, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Condicionantes de la dependencia

En Colombia, estuvo presente en la VII Conferencia Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Ciencias Sociales-Clacso, realizada en Medellín, en noviembre de 2015, exponiendo sobre la actualidad de la Teoría de la Dependencia forjada en la década de los sesentas, y afirmando que los capitales de Estados Unidos y Europa siguen siendo en el continente una condicionante de la dependencia del desarrollo industrial en el continente latinoamericano. Resaltó que el mercado ligado a la economía China, cambia el tablero internacional con una nueva potencia mundial, convirtiéndose las economías latinoamericanas en principales socios comerciales; y nos recordaba la maldición latinoamericana del pago de la deuda adquirida con los capitales externos, con la compra de nuevos bonos de deuda. En sus tesis fue sosteniendo que el desarrollo de la industria nacional de la región, quedó ligado al interés de la clase trabajadora, en su lugar, las burguesías nacionales quedaron cada vez más asimiladas a la economía e industrialización norteamericana.

La crítica que realizó en una entrevista en el marco de la Conferencia, fue a los tratados comerciales del acuerdo transpacífico, una alianza de subordinados al poder económico en decadencia de los EE.UU. Lo consideró una “aventura ridícula” en tanto nueva fase de dependencia que reafirma un modelo colonial de la economía estadounidense, en tiempos donde la emergencia de la economía China podría dar lugar a que los gobiernos de Colombia, México, Perú y Chile se preguntasen: “a dónde puede ir el Pacífico sin China”.

Su extensa obra, puede leerse en publicaciones traducidas en castellano del portugués: Dos Santos, Theotonio (2002) La teoría de la dependencia. Balances y Perspectivas; (1978) Socialismo o fascismo. El nuevo carácter de la dependencia y el dilema latinoamericano; (2004) Economía mundial y la integración latinoamericana; (2013) Fuerzas productivas y relaciones de producción: un ensayo introductorio, por dejar mencionadas algunas.

* Mg. Estancia de investigación en el doctorado en Estudios Políticos y Relaciones Internacionales (UNAL); doctoranda en Ciencias Sociales (UBA). PCC-Colombia. 

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