Moda, tiranía y sociedad

177
Pasarela de Colombiamoda en el año 2016. Foto internet.

A proposito de Colombiamoda (I)

Óscar Sotelo Ortiz
@oscarsopos

Es altamente probable que en lo que queda de julio y en la primera semana de agosto del 2018, las principales revistas de entretenimiento del país registren en noticias, reportajes, fotografías y videos lo que será Colombiamoda o Semana de la Moda de Colombia, feria que se celebra entre los días 24 y 26 de julio en la Plaza Mayor de la ciudad de Medellín.

Colombiamoda es el escenario donde lo mejor y lo más destacado de está industria colombiana se da cita, donde diseñadores, marcas, textileros, maquiladoras, modistas y modelos, construyen la muestra comercial más importante del país en productos terminados de todos los universos de vestuario del Sistema Moda.

Para esta edición, que en el 2018 celebra 29 años, se espera la asistencia de 50.000 visitantes nacionales e internacionales, con una oferta de 500 expositores de ropa, textiles e insumos, la presentación en pasarela de 43 diseñadores y 9 marcas de primer nivel, y 20 conferencias sobre tendencias e innovación de la industria en el país.

Con el regreso de la aclamada diseñadora Isabel Henao quien cerrará el evento, la presencia de Laura Aparicio como nuevo talento bogotano que cautiva Milán y Paris, y el estreno del cantante de reggeaton J-Balvin como diseñador, la organización del evento espera superar las metas de negocios con respecto a la edición pasada, que en términos generales fueron negativas y que se suman a la dramática crisis estructural del sector textil en Colombia.

Independientemente de los resultados e impactos, está redacción ha tomado como excusa este importante evento para entrar y profundizar sobre el inquietante universo de la moda, columna vertebral del tejido social contemporáneo y parte fundamental del capitalismo cultural de lo cotidiano.

Viste de Prada

Hollywood logró construir en el film The Devil Wears Prada una pieza de culto sobre el mundo de la moda. Basada en el best seller homónimo de la periodista Laura Weisberger, está película desarrolla la traumática relación laboral entre la aspirante a escritora Andy Sachs (Anne Hathaway) y la jefe de redacción de la principal revista de esta industria, Miranda Priestly (Meryl Streep), retratando de manera ficticia la experiencia vivida por la autora con la número uno de la vanguardista revista Vogue, la polémica y prestigiosa Anna Wintour.

La referencia se debe a una de las principales escenas de la película. En una de las rutinarias muestras de ropa, que son imprescindibles en la construcción de contenidos en la revista, Sachs se burla espontáneamente al no encontrar diferencias en la selección de cinturones aparentemente iguales. Priestly quien reacciona con calma y soberbia, literalmente destruye el argumento frágil de la joven asistente, tomando como referencia el color del corriente suéter que viste Sachs, donde están involucrados los célebres diseñadores Yves Saint Laurent y Óscar de la Renta. “Es curioso que pienses que hiciste una elección que te exenta de la industria de la moda, cuando de hecho estás usando un suéter que fue seleccionado para tí por estas personas de una pila de cosas” remata Priestly y fin de la escena.

En el fondo, lo registrado por el film es una descripción cruda del poder que tiene el mundo de la moda en la vida cotidiana de la gente y confirma la categorización que a finales del siglo XIX hacía el jurista alemán Rudolp von Ihering: La moda se construye de arriba-abajo, su condición fundamental es la novedad, y es tiránica por antonomasia, pues todo el mundo participa directa e indirectamente de ella.

De arriba-abajo

Tal y como lo referencia el filósofo alemán Walter Benjamín en su Libro de los Pasajes, la moda inauguró el lugar de intercambio dialéctico entre la mujer y la mercancía. Su motivación que en perspectiva satisface al individuo, se alimenta de una incitación social y que deja al desnudo la lucha de clases: Intenta separar las clases altas de las clases inferiores, a partir de lo simbólico, en la forma de vestir y con ello, en la estética.

Como un fenómeno que emerge de la segunda revolución industrial y que cristaliza en el siglo XX toda una poderosa industria de marcas, diseñadores, revistas, portales, tiendas, mercadeo y pasarelas orientadas al consumo de masas, no solo representa millones de dólares del sistema capitalista sino también millones de puestos de trabajo, la mayoría sujetos a la esclavitud de la globalización y otros minoritarios anclados al prestigio de la alta cultura.

Y aunque la exigencia de la cultura de masas sea la “democratización” de la mercancía, en la industria de la moda la relación elite-gente se mantiene, pues basta con entender qué son las marcas Chanel o Louis Button, qué son las revistas Vogue o Elle Magazine, qué son las pasarelas de Victoria Secret o el París Fashion Week, quienes acaparan, confeccionan y orientan las tendencias, innovaciones y productos de la industria, y con ello son acreedores de las astronómicas ganancias.

Innovación

Como una expresión cualificada del arte moderno, la moda anticipa en años la realidad perceptible. El historiador marxista Eric Hobsbawn lo reconoce en su libro Un tiempo de rupturas, ya que son los diseñadores de moda los mejores predictores del futuro. La naturaleza es entonces la innovación, la novedad, la lógica de cambio.

La metodología de producción tanto simbólica como de mercancía, propia del mundo europeo y su sensibilidad del entorno, se dibuja a partir de las temporadas primavera-verano y otoño-invierno, generando novedosas creaciones de las cosas venideras. Lo atractivo de la moda es que traduce por anticipado las nuevas corrientes artísticas, los códigos sociales, incluso las nuevas confrontaciones y puntos de ruptura en la sociedad.

Tiranía

Alimentada por los estímulos del pasado y el presente, la moda convierte su arte en tendencia, en época, en el deseado y masivo consumo de su mercancía; en lo que Benjamín llama la “siempre extraña necesidad de sensación”. La moda como el arte de lo contingente, efímero y transitorio.

“La moda es la búsqueda siempre vana, a menudo ridícula, a veces peligrosa, de una belleza superior ideal” anota el escritor francés Maxime Du Camp. Sobre esta premisa se estructura la tiranía de la industria, su eterna búsqueda, que no son otros que los fines de estimulación erótica de la sociedad, donde la intuición de lo femenino se convierte en el principal estereotipo que es indudablemente hegemónico y profundamente explotado.

Esta tiranía, que forma parte de la cotidianidad social, combina su carácter de novedad con un elemento distractor. Lo nuevo para ver en las pasarelas, lo nuevo para escuchar, producto de la cultura pop, lo nuevo para vestir como producto finalizado y lo nuevo para leer en las revistas, se encuentra en todos los lugares comunes que estimula el marketing y la cultura de mercado.

El sujeto social quien es en últimas el actor del consumo deseado, compra estatus y prestigio social en el mundo de la moda. El hecho de que se pague diez veces el valor de un artículo, que es pensado en el norte del glamour pero producido en el sur de la miseria, configura el deseo moderno de sentirse único y que se satisface artificialmente con unas zapatillas Nike, un perfume Hugo Boss o una blusa Prada.

Conclusión

La moda genera multimillonarias ganancias, estimula un mercado cada vez más totalitario, reproduce el sistema desigual norte-sur en beneficio del poder, mantiene el estereotipo occidental de belleza y el rol social de la mujer en la industria. Es profundamente atractiva como desigual. En otras palabras, la moda como construcción histórica, como industria cultural, ha triunfado.

El reto es fracturarla en favor de las causas justas. Para este propósito el primer paso es no ignorarla. El segundo construir una alternativa, tema que le dará continuidad a la segunda parte de esta nota.

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