El mito de la belleza

87

Renata Cabrales
@RENATARELATA 

Naomi Wolf, en El mito de la belleza, manifiesta que en la medida que las mujeres obtienen más libertades, derechos e igualdad, mayores son las exigencias socioculturales al seguimiento a una ideología de la belleza, de por sí esclavizante, que viene a ser el reemplazo de una ideología anterior que es la doméstica y que fue criticada en ese entonces por diferentes lideresas del movimiento feminista como Betty Friedan en La mística femenina.

Para Wolf, El mito de la belleza es una especie de contraataque al feminismo “que usa imágenes de la belleza femenina como arma política contra el creciente poder económico, político y social obtenido por las mujeres occidentales”. Asimismo, argumenta que los estereotipos de belleza son diferentes históricamente y “generalmente expresión de las relaciones de poder entre hombres y mujeres, así que la ideología de la belleza femenina puede interpretarse como un último esfuerzo por parte de los hombres para conservar la dominación masculina”.

Advierte además, la autora que: “No se trata de un contragolpe planificado ni de una conspiración, sino de una tendencia impulsada por los medios masivos de comunicación, la sociología y psicología populares, la industria de la moda y cosmética y una amplia gama de industrias culturales que producen imágenes para una economía de consumo en la que las propias mujeres son consumidoras y bienes de consumo que se juzgan a sí mismas según parámetros inalcanzables, que merman sus vidas porque sienten “una obsesión con el físico, un terror de envejecer y un horror a la pérdida de control” sobre sí mismas”.

Esta obsesión por alcanzar un ideal de belleza impuesto por una sociedad patriarcal, que se refleja en la publicidad, el cine, la televisión y diversas expresiones culturales, se ha traducido en enfermedades mentales como la anorexia nerviosa y la bulimia que afectan a la población femenina, en su mayoría, así como la baja autoestima e inseguridad por su aspecto físico. Cabe resaltar que un gran número de hombres jóvenes también se ha visto afectado por este flagelo, debido a que el machismo también afecta de diversas formas a los hombres.

Bullying o matoneo en la escuela

Pero, no solo las enfermedades anteriormente mencionadas afectan a mujeres, niñas y adolescentes sino que muchas niñas, niños y adolescentes han sido víctimas del cruel matoneo en la escuela debido a su apariencia física, que en muchos casos, conduce al suicidio.

Sonia Matallana, licenciada en psicología y pedagogía, cuyo campo laboral es la psicorientación u orientación escolar, en una conversación con VOZ, nos confirma que, “la mayoría de casos de matoneo que les reportan  docentes o estudiantes tienen que ver con agresiones verbales o discriminación por el aspecto físico, forma de vestir o manera de comportarse. Las agresiones físicas y o verbales son más comunes de lo que una se imagina y me han llegado casos desde preescolar hasta grado once, edades de 5 a 17 años”.

–¿Qué es el matoneo?

–El bullying o matoneo es un acto agresivo e intencional físico o verbal cuyo fin es lastimar con palabras o con ataques violentos a otra persona. Este acto agresivo tiene que ser reiterativo y tiene que haber una diferencia de edad o jerarquía de por medio, es decir, si el acto de agresión se hace una sola vez, no viene a ser considerado matoneo.

–¿Por qué son violentadas las niñas?

–Teniendo en cuenta que un 90 o 95 por ciento de casos de matoneo por el aspecto físico es dirigido hacia mujeres y niñas, me enfoco más en hablar de ellas.

Las niñas que reclaman se han visto violentadas por su manera de vestir, porque no lucen  acorde a lo que se espera de una mujer en una sociedad patriarcal, dentro de la cual se tienen que cumplir unos estereotipos.

Durante de mi experiencia como psicorientadora llama la atención cómo esta práctica violenta hacia lo que no se considera estéticamente lindo o femenino, sigue siendo algo cotidiano en la escuela, en ese sentido me he encontrado con casos de discriminación por la manera en que visten las niñas,  la manera como llevan el cabello o las cejas. Hay un rechazo casi generalizado por quienes no cumplen con los patrones de belleza que establece la sociedad.

El papel de la familia

–¿Qué papel juega la familia en los casos de niños, niñas y adolescentes agresores?

–Lo más terrible de todo es que los niños y las niñas y jóvenes agresores aprenden sus prácticas violentas de sus familiares, allí se muestra cierto rechazo cómplice hacia el otro y la otra.

En las entrevistas con los agresores he podido darme cuenta de que sus conductas son aprendidas en el hogar, pues tienen una familia que se burla, discrimina y rechaza a las niñas por tener cuerpos diferentes, por no comportarse de “forma femenina”, de niñas que juegan fútbol, por ejemplo y son tildadas de marimachas.

También he visto de manera muy común, agresiones y rechazo a niñas por ser afrodescendientes, hablamos de una cuestión de racismo severa; por llevar su cabello afro y también  por ser indígenas.

Algunos casos generales de suicidio por bullying

Aslynn Conner, una niña de diez años, se suicidó ahorcándose con una bufanda al no soportar las humillaciones que padecía a diario en la escuela elemental Georgetown Ridge, en Georgetown, Illinois. Durante mucho tiempo, Asynn fue víctima de los insultos de sus compañeros, que la llamaban “Puta”, “gorda” y “fea”.

En abril de 2017, Rosalie Ávila, de tan solo 13 años, del Estado de California, EE.UU., decidió suicidarse debido al acoso, pues sus compañeros la llamaban fea, constantemente.

Este año, en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia, una niña de 12 años, del colegio La Salle se quitó la vida debido a que no soportaba las constantes burlas provenientes de sus compañeros(as) por su sobrepeso.

El bullying viene a ser entonces, la consecuencia de una sociedad machista y excluyente que rechaza a quien no cumple con los patrones estéticos de belleza, a quien está fuera de la heteronormatividad establecida y a quienes pertenecen a las supuestas minorías como afros e indígenas, y su más grave resultado es el suicidio.

En el año 2015, según Medicina Legal, se registraron un total de 195 muertes, de las cuales 122 correspondían a hombres y 73 a mujeres, todos menores de edad.

Teniendo en cuenta las cifras, notamos que la mayoría de los casos de suicidios son del sexo masculino, debido al padecimiento del matoneo en la escuela y podemos llegar a la conclusión de que tanto niños como niñas y adolescentes de ambos sexos se ven afectados por un sistema machista que le exige a las mujeres ser más “bellas y femeninas” y a los hombres a demostrar su hombría por medio de la violencia y la agresividad.

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