Mirada sobre el 2018: Una apuesta por mayor productividad

145

Bianca Lizzeth Viatela Carrascal*

En el panorama económico actual, Colombia debe seguir en busca de la productividad. En los últimos 40 años, la economía colombiana ha crecido a una tasa anual de 4,3 %, donde solo el 0,3 o 0,4 % proviene de mejoras en la productividad total de factores, referidos a cantidad de producción de todo capital y fuerza de trabajo”, según el Departamento de Planeación.

De acuerdo al Índice de Competitividad Global (ICG) herramienta de monitoreo e identificación de prioridades para los gobiernos, el sector privado y la sociedad civil; con objetivo de medir capacidad de una nación para lograr crecimiento económico sostenido a largo plazo, con relación a sus recursos disponibles y capacidad para proveer a sus habitantes un alto nivel de prosperidad; mediante análisis sujeto a evaluación de 12 pilares enfocados a temas de instituciones, infraestructura, ambiente macroeconómico, salud y educación básica, educación superior y capacitación, eficiencia del mercado de bienes, eficiencia del mercado laboral, desarrollo del mercado financiero, preparación tecnológica, tamaño del mercado, sofisticación de los negocios, e innovación.

Dichos pilares arrojan información proveniente de encuestas de opinión y datos oficiales de cada economía;  que para el Foro Económico Mundial, suministró informe oficial, que al cierre del 2017, a nivel mundial, Suiza continúa siendo el país más competitivo, seguido por Estados Unidos, Singapur, Países Bajos, Alemania, Hong Kong, Suecia, Reino Unido, Japón y Finlandia; mientras que en Latinoamérica, Chile lidera el grupo de los países más competitivos de la región (posición 33), seguido por Costa Rica (47), Panamá (50), México (60) y Colombia (66). Los últimos de la región son Paraguay (122) y Venezuela (127).

Colombia descendió cinco posiciones en comparación con el 2016, y continúa por tercer año consecutivo como el quinto país más competitivo de la región en su posición 66; destacándose en la última edición del ICG la existencia del Sistema Nacional de Competitividad, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación en Colombia, como ejemplo de un arreglo institucional público-privado que busca mejorar el nivel de competitividad del país; siendo sus resultados revisados y monitoreados por el Presidente, el sector privado y la sociedad civil en la Comisión Nacional de Competitividad al final de cada año.

Intervención en expectativas

Con relación a lo anterior hay mucho por hacer, y algunas de las estrategias para aumentar la productividad en Colombia le apuestan a priorizar sectores y aumentar la productividad de las empresas, para permitir un mejor desarrollo económico regional y el fortalecimiento del mismo en el mercado internacional.

Con la finalidad de ejecutar los objetivos que el Gobierno nacional se ha trazado para el periodo 2014-2018, el artículo 11de la Ley 1753 de 2015 establece:

“Artículo 11: El Programa de Transformación Productiva (PTP), tendrá por objeto la implementación de estrategias público-privadas, y el aprovechamiento de ventajas comparativas para la mejora en productividad y competitividad de la industria y turismo, al cual se podrán destinar los recursos del Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, de organismos internacionales de desarrollo, convenios de cooperación internacional, con organizaciones privadas con entes territoriales y transferencias de otras entidades públicas de orden nacional y regional. Programa que será un patrimonio autónomo con régimen privado administrado por el Banco de Comercio Exterior S A. (Bancóldex)”

El PTP estará haciendo acompañamiento a varias empresas para potencializar su producción en las regiones y mejorar la calidad de los productos, atendiendo a todos aquellos sectores que tienen capacidad de crecimiento y productividad en demanda en los mercados externos; de acuerdo con la hoja de ruta diseñada por el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo (MinCIT) junto con alcaldías locales, gobernaciones, cámaras de comercio y empresarios, gremios, comisiones regionales de competitividad, universidades, entre otros.

“La necesidad de enfocarnos precisamente busca unir los esfuerzos nacionales y regionales, así como públicos y privados, para que el impacto del trabajo sea mayor y más significativo, además tenemos como meta, promover la sofisticación de la oferta exportable, mejorando la productividad de empresas y calidad de productos. Se quiere impactar a más de 2.000 empresas que tengan capacidades para exportar y superar los requisitos de acceso a los mercados” afirmó la ministra del MinCIT, María Claudia Lacouture.

Tratando otro aspecto importante, en el intento de cerrar la brecha con sus pares de mercado emergente, la nación está gastando 20.000 millones de dólares en mejorar su red de carreteras que es una de las peores del mundo, adoptando otras medidas, como reducir el tiempo que demora procesar los contenedores en los puertos. Se estima que la nueva infraestructura vial, impulsará el crecimiento potencial entre 0,4 y 0,5% al reducir demoras y costos para las empresas.

Se estima también que el Acuerdo de Paz firmado el año pasado, también impulsará el crecimiento potencial, en alrededor de medio punto porcentual.

El desempleo y la inversión, son otros factores que se espera sean intervenidos de manera estratégica y urgente.

* Columnista invitada, Psicóloga. 

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