Mentiras convertidas en bandera electoral

185
Rodrigo Lara.

Las proposiciones de modificación de la JEP no tienen fundamento

Hernán Camacho
@camachohernan 

A mes y medio de terminar sesiones ordinarias el Congreso de la República, avanza a paso muy lento y con tropiezos la implementación normativa del acuerdo de paz. La pasada semana en el debate sobre reforma política, por una artimaña del presidente de la Cámara de Representantes, Rodrigo Lara, se interrumpió la discusión de la Justicia Especial de Paz, JEP, para aprobar presurosamente el presupuesto de la Nación con vigencia del año 2018. Solamente quedó en firme la ponencia para segundo debate de la reforma política y sin anuncios próximos para retomar la discusión.

Las propuestas de modificación presentadas por el Fiscal General de la Nación y el candidato presidencial Germán Vargas Lleras, que van desde la concepción del Sistema Integral de Verdad, Justicia, Reparación y No Repetición, la posibilidad que todos los colombianos tuvieran que acudir a esa jurisdicción, los impedimentos para que los sujetos políticos que emergen del proceso de paz no pudieran hacer política, la comparecencia de terceros civiles, y que los jueces de paz, recientemente elegidos, pertenecen a la insurgencia.

Naturaleza

Todos los sectores políticos aliados a la paz salieron al corte y respondieron cada una de las incongruencias. En cuanto a la naturaleza de la JEP, esta se centra en la verdad y la reparación integral de las víctimas. Resulta imposible que se consolide la paz, sin garantizar el reconocimiento suficiente de verdad que les permita a los colombianos y a las víctimas comprender las causas y los responsables del conflicto. El sistema habla de la justicia y la garantía para que los colombianos y las víctimas directas e indirectas de la confrontación cierren un ciclo histórico con el cual se garantice la no repetición de los hechos.

La JEP

Sobre la impunidad de la que supuestamente sería beneficiaria la insurgencia, expertos juristas señalaron que es una afirmación carente de sustento real. El informe del Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica, Basta Ya, señaló que el país goza de un porcentaje alto de impunidad sobre los hechos ocurridos en el conflicto, discriminando los actores que más gozaban de impunidad, ubicando a los grupos paramilitares en primer lugar, seguidos por los crímenes cometidos por agentes de Estado y por último, las insurgencias. Es decir, para la propia oficialidad la mayor ausencia de verdad, justicia y reparación está en los crímenes cometidos por el paramilitarismo y los agentes de Estado.

Estos hechos son contundentes y desnuda la crisis de la justicia ordinaria y que la JEP aspira a superar. “El primer mito que hay que erradicar es que la guerrilla no ha sido juzgada por la justicia ordinaria, todo lo contrario, las estadísticas dicen que ha habido más condenas a guerrilleros que a paramilitares, es decir, casi que la justicia ordinaria es solo para la insurgencia”.

De hecho, en la actualidad hay más de mil excombatientes de las FARC-EP sin recibir los beneficios de la ley de indulto y amnistía, y que siguen esperando que la JEP resuelva sus peticiones de libertad condicional, debido a que la justicia ordinaria mediante los jueces de ejecución de penas se niegan a otorgarla, pues consideran insuficiente la condena por rebelión para reconocerle a los excombatientes su pertenecía a las FARC-EP.

“Eso solo puede pasar en Colombia. Aquí se condenaba a todo el mundo por rebelión y por supuestamente pertenecer a las FARC y hoy se niega la libertad porque los jueces de ejecución de  de penas consideran que debe comprobarse con algo más que su condena, que es guerrillero de las FARC-EP”, señaló Sergio Marín, miembro de la dirección de las FARC.

Los terceros

En cuanto a los terceros que deben acudir a la JEP, se dice que el sistema estimula la verdad, completa, detallada y temprana para las personas que crean estar inmersas en delitos o las que están siendo investigadas en la justicia ordinaria por acciones del conflicto armado. Dichas personas podrán comparecer a los tribunales y para aclarar su situación, reconociendo verdad o debatiendo su situación jurídica pues consideran que sus actos no constituyen delitos.

La JEP tendrá sanciones de tipo restaurativo, es decir, tareas reparadoras directas que beneficien a las víctimas por los hechos ocurridos. Sanciones reparadoras que buscan dos objetivos fundamentales, la no repetición y acabar con las causas del conflicto.

Tampoco es cierto que la JEP condenará a todo aquel que acuda a esa jurisdicción. Para ser sancionado tendrá que ser escuchado y su caso debatido en juicio y de ser derrotado allí su sanción será proporcional a sus actos, que en todo caso no supera los ocho años.

Presidentes

Como también resulta una fábula la versión de que se aspira a que el expresidente Álvaro Uribe sea condenado por los tribunales de paz. La JEP excluye de su juzgamiento la magistratura presidencial, pues en caso de encontrar vínculos de algún expresidente con actuaciones criminales en el conflicto armado, remitirá la investigación a los jueces competentes.  A la JEP se someterán uniformados, agentes del Estado, terceros civiles y guerrilleros que tenga una vinculación con un crimen en el marco del conflicto.

Verdad prematura

Las verdaderas intenciones detrás de las proposiciones presentadas por el Fiscal General y la bancada de Cambio Radical, es que las FARC no estén en el debate electoral del próximo año, sin haber acudido antes a la JEP. Dicha propuesta, que fue acompañada por la senadora Claudia López, vulnera un principio que tienen los estados democráticos, la presunción de inocencia.

“Con esa tesis cualquier colombiano que no quiera que un compatriota o que un vecino se presente a las elecciones, lo denuncia en la JEP y automáticamente queda inhabilitado para ejercer sus derechos políticos. Eso no solamente es absurdo, sino abre una guerra electoral fuera de las urnas”.

De ser así, el propio Germán Vargas Lleras, quedaría inhabilitado para ser candidato presidencial en caso de que esa modificación que presenta Cambio Radical, quede en firme en los siguientes debates, pues cualquier colombiano podrá llevar el nombre del jefe natural de Cambio Radical y será hasta que se pronuncie la JEP que pueda participar en elecciones.

Lo cierto es que las FARC ya se han adelantado a la JEP dando pasos ciertos en dirección a la verdad del conflicto, sin que existan aún los tribunales especiales. De hecho son los únicos actores del conflicto que han reconocido verdad por los hechos ocurridos en Bojayá, Chocó, el club El Nogal en Bogotá, La Chinita en Urabá y la muerte de los diputados a la Asamblea del Valle del Cauca. Ni el Estado ni los paramilitares han reconocido de manera temprana su responsabilidad en cientos de masacres.

La semana que cursa es el tiempo para el debate en plenaria del Senado de la República de la reglamentación a la JEP, ya superando el palo en la rueda, luego de una reunión entre FARC, Gobierno nacional, voceros del parlamento y el propio jefe del ente investigador, quienes aclararon interpretaciones equivocadas sobre el proyecto de ley y se comprometieron con la aprobación de la iniciativa que regula los tribunales de paz.

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