Matador y la caricatura de la democracia

325

Las amenazas al caricaturista Matador, a quien expresamos nuestra solidaridad, son apenas una muestra de una práctica reiterada en Colombia, popularizada con el crecimiento de las redes sociales y la ausencia de una cultura política para la construcción de una real democracia.

Los asesinatos, señalamientos y desplazamientos contra comunicadores realizados desde poderes políticos y económicos están a la orden del día, sobre todo contra la prensa alternativa y los medios regionales.

En el informe de la Federación Colombiana de Periodistas, Fecolper, intitulado Las Fórmulas del Silencio que muestra los comportamientos contra la prensa en 2017, se registran 276 vulneraciones con un total de 326 víctimas: “Las amenazas (30,4%), seguidas por las agresiones físicas (10,7%) y las obstrucciones al trabajo periodístico (9%), son las formas de violencia más recurrentes”.

El documento también destaca que el Estado, con la sumatoria de los casos atribuibles a funcionarios públicos y la fuerza pública, está entre los mayores agresores contra la libertad de prensa.

Este periódico también ha sufrido la persecución. Ha sido víctima de bombas, amenazas, ejecuciones a sus periodistas, negativa de pauta publicitaria por parte de entidades estatales, persecución a su Director, persecución policial a sus distribuidores, y hasta se llegó al caso de que en Caquetá una Fiscal presentó como prueba para acusar a un presunto guerrillero, vender el periódico VOZ en una cabecera municipal.

Desde 1789, el Artículo 11 de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Hombre y del Ciudadano habla de la libertad de expresión, opinión y de difundir por cualquier medio, sin limitaciones.

Asimismo, la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos en 1948 plasma las mismas garantías en su Artículo 19, y la Constitución Política de Colombia en sus artículos 20 y 73, en los que además dice que debe haber responsabilidad social por parte de los medios y protección para garantizar el ejercicio periodístico.

Sin embargo, en la realidad esos derechos no se han materializado plenamente por lo que el problema no se puede ver como algo aislado. Está ligado a la falta de democracia o a la falta de garantías que se deben ofrecer desde el Estado para el ejercicio libre de esta profesión.

Tampoco se puede hablar de libertad de prensa cuando los pocos medios de comunicación están concentrados en manos de conglomerados económicos, quienes informan y generan opiniones de acuerdo a sus intereses. Lo malo no es que ellos tengan medios, lo lesivo es que para obtener una paz real, duradera, que aporte a la construcción y perfeccionamiento de una democracia, debe haber más y diversas formas de pensar y de decir.

En la sociedad deben tener cabida otras voces, otros intereses, otras formas de ser, de sentir, de interpretar el mundo y la política, de transmitir sensibilidades humanas, otras narrativas, otras miradas que actualmente son invisibilizadas de manera predeterminada y que corresponden a la realidad de una sociedad pluricultural.

Las amenazas que recibió Matador son el resultado de la proyección en el ciberespacio de ideologías fascistas promovidas por líderes de opinión con un caudal de energúmenos seguidores. Esta situación solo refleja una relación asimétrica e injusta entre el derecho de los ciudadanos y el periodismo a emitir sus opiniones, frente a los poderes políticos, económicos y estatales antidemocráticos que imponen sus reglas mediante la fuerza y el miedo. No hay que perder de vista que una de las funciones o responsabilidades de la prensa es la vigilancia del poder.

Entonces, el problema va más allá de lo normativo. Porque aunque han faltado herramientas como una ley de medios, también voluntad por parte de quienes han detentado por décadas el poder político y económico, para permitir las disidencias comunicativas en el arte, la cultura, la política, el deporte y en todas las dimensiones necesarias para construir nuevas relaciones políticas y económicas propias de una sociedad que mira hacia un periodo de posconflicto, y hacia la construcción y reconstrucción de sus tejidos sociales.

Sin caer en el maniqueísmo de creer que los medios son el cuarto poder o las máquinas que manipulan a las masas, sí son empresas y procesos esenciales para el desarrollo de las sociedades y sus responsabilidades van más allá de entretener, crear opinión o informar.

Estamos llamados a ser espacios de debate, de batalla de ideas, de formación, de comunicación, de educación y de articulación de y con procesos sociales, lo que hace necesaria una normatividad que ofrezca garantías, pero también regulación social y estatal para responder por excesos y abusos.

Al mismo tiempo, en una relación simbiótica, la sociedad requiere crear una cultura democrática que va de la mano de gobiernos alternativos, de transformación de las instituciones, de una economía incluyente y de acceso universal a la educación que produzca nuevas relaciones sociales para que nuestra democracia deje de ser una caricatura.

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