¡Marx vive en Manizales!

105
Aspecto de una de las sesiones del seminario sobre la génesis de la economía política de Marx, en Manizales.

Los asistentes y el equipo docente que estuvo al frente, coincidieron en señalar que el seminario, realizado en la Universidad de Caldas, es una contribución a la creación de la Red Colombiana de Estudios Marxistas, en el eje cafetero

Alberto Acevedo

El pasado jueves 14 de noviembre concluyó con éxito, en uno de los recintos de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas de la Universidad de Caldas, en Manizales, la décima y última sesión de un ciclo de jornadas académicas que un grupo interdisciplinario, vinculado al alma mater del Viejo Caldas, realizó en torno a la génesis de la economía política de Carlos Marx, en el marco de los seminarios que en Colombia y el mundo se dieron este año, con ocasión del 150 aniversario de la publicación de El Capital y el bicentenario del nacimiento del filósofo de Tréveris.

La primera sesión académica se realizó el jueves 6 de septiembre, dedicada a examinar los primeros años de la vida de Carlos Marx, la Europa pos napoleónica, y la situación fragmentada de la Alemania de esa época. La segunda sesión se realizó el 13 de septiembre, y examinó el influjo de las principales corrientes socialistas, desde la Revolución Francesa y los principales movimientos liberales y socialistas en Alemania.

La siguientes sesiones se realizaron los días 20 y 27 de septiembre; 4, 11 y 18 de octubre; y primero y 8 de noviembre. Previa a cada sesión se realizó una ‘lectura común’, que los participantes trabajaron y discutieron. En desarrollo de cada jornada, se recomendaron ‘lecturas complementarias’, entre las cuales se seleccionó la de mayor interés. Con antelación se discutieron el objeto y la metodología de las jornadas académicas y se hicieron nuevas sugerencias de textos de estudio por parte de los participantes.

Extensa bibliografía

Como es de suponerse, no fueron pocas las obras de estudiosos del legado del filósofo alemán, que fueron consultadas a lo largo de la jornada, muchas de ellas recomendadas como textos de consulta posterior. Entre estos autores se destacan, Georgy Lukács, Isaiah Berlin, David McLellan, Federico Engels, Franz Mehring, Bruno Bauer, Adolfo Sánchez Vásquez, Ernest Mandel, y la densa obra de Marx.

Además del objetivo central de estudiar la obra marxista,  los asistentes y el equipo docente que estuvo al frente, coincidieron en señalar que el seminario de la Universidad de Caldas es una contribución a la creación de la Red Colombiana de Estudios Marxistas del eje cafetero.

Uno de los animadores de esta iniciativa docente de la universidad que sirvió de anfitriona a la jornada académica, es el profesor español Carlos Macías, doctor en Geografía, residente en Colombia desde hace varios años. Conversamos con el académico.

Lugar de encuentro

–¿Cuál fue el objetivo perseguido en la programación del seminario?

–El proyecto del seminario surgió por el interés de los militantes de la JUCO en Manizales de contar con un espacio de formación más estable, que permitiera profundizar teóricamente en algún tema, y que fuese abierto para ser lugar de encuentro con militantes de otras organizaciones con las que la JUCO tiene afinidad ideológica. En ese momento supimos que se estaba impulsando en el país la Red Colombiana de Estudios Marxistas, y nos animamos a lanzar el seminario como primer intento de ir articulando un nodo de la Red en Caldas. De ahí que considerásemos idóneo comenzar por un estudio de la biografía intelectual de Marx, organizado como un seminario informal en la universidad.

–¿Qué metodología utilizaron?

–La propuesta original de la JUCO era que el nuevo espacio no consistiera en un profesor o profesora dando clases a un público que escucha para luego hacer alguna pregunta, sino que fuera algo más dinámico, horizontal, participativo y entre iguales. Así que, más que una serie de charlas realizadas por algún especialista, el seminario se convirtió en un lugar de debate de personas interesadas en el estudio de Marx que se encuentran semanalmente para compartir sus propios avances, resolverse dudas mutuamente y explorar en común las ideas e hipótesis que nos surgen a cada uno en nuestro estudio individual de Marx.

Se proyectaron diez sesiones, que recogieran la trayectoria biográfica e intelectual de Marx desde su infancia hasta la publicación del Manifiesto Comunista de 1848, aprovechando que estamos en el 150 aniversario de su publicación. En cada sesión se proponen lecturas para la siguiente, que son compartidas por medio de archivos en PDF. El texto que nos sirve de base es la biografía ya clásica de Marx de Franz Mehring (Karl Marx, historia de su vida), acompañada de los textos propios de Marx, que pueden ser desde cartas y borradores hasta trabajos que nunca publicó o las obras con las que empezó a darse a conocer. También recurrimos a textos de marxistas que han tratado este periodo de la vida de Marx, como Eric Hobsbawm, Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez, Georgy Lukács o Ernest Mandel.

Una experiencia repetible

Estas lecturas se seleccionan con la intención de comprender no sólo lo que Marx pensaba y escribía sino las condiciones históricas en las que esas ideas surgen. A partir de nuestro estudio personal de las lecturas, cada sesión se convierte en un periodo de dos horas de continuo debate e intercambio, sin un «profesor» que tenga la última palabra.

–¿Qué experiencia puede extraerse para futuros proyectos de educación?

–Todavía no hemos hecho una evaluación profunda. Sin duda, habrán de surgir muchos aspectos en los que podremos mejorar. Como el proyecto nació de manera totalmente autónoma, con seguridad podríamos aprender también de otras experiencias similares que hayan pasado por lo mismo. Quizás la enseñanza más clara por ahora es que hay personas en una ciudad como Manizales que no se conocen entre sí pero están interesadas en profundizar en el pensamiento marxista y compartir con otros sus propias reflexiones. Eso nos hace confiar en que experiencias como la nuestra son repetibles en muchos otros lugares.

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