Marx, colosal

116
Pintura de Marx y Engels entregando el Manifi esto Comunista. Tomada de Internet.

Óscar Sotelo Ortiz
@oscarsopos 

El pasado 5 de mayo en Tréveris, Alemania, y en el mundo en general, se celebró el natalicio número 200 de Karl Heinrich Marx. Como es costumbre con un nombre que despierta toda clase de valoraciones, sentimientos y posiciones, los homenajes estuvieron marcados por la polémica y la disputa.

Los medios escritos de comunicación en Colombia no estuvieron ajenos a este fenómeno. Editoriales, artículos, especiales, videos, etc., hicieron de Marx un espectro que debía ser conjurado. Solo por dar dos ejemplos: ¿Es Marx todavía relevante? fue el análisis de Peter Singer que publicó El Tiempo; o 5 cosas que Karl Marx hizo por nosotros y por las que no le damos crédito artículo de Eva Ontiveros, publicado originalmente por la BBC británica y reproducido por la revista Semana.

Villano y banalizado

En el primer artículo, tenemos un Marx cuyo proyecto político e histórico fracasó con las experiencias socialistas del siglo XX, siendo el viraje hacia el capitalismo de la China post Mao, el mejor ejemplo del agotamiento del marxismo en un mundo donde la propiedad privada y el mercado son los grandes vencedores. En el segundo artículo, nos venden un Marx banalizado, mediatizado, inofensivo; un Marx que cargará por siempre con las “experiencias drásticas” pero que tiene un rostro humano y sus pequeñas contribuciones nos han llevado a un mundo mejor. Incluso etiquetan la nota como entretenimiento, como farándula.

En los dos casos, las contribuciones de Marx para el mundo actual, son secundarias o han sido superadas por la misma historia. Es más, su legado en la política es “totalitarismo y radicalidad”.

Sin embargo, se preguntan los dos autores por la vigencia de Marx. De hecho, quienes se esfuerzan todos los días por exorcizar el espectro del comunismo, se preguntan, se argumentan, se fortalecen en la idea que no está vigente. Ocultan una fórmula dialéctica, una feliz desgracia: Mientras exista capitalismo, existirá Marx.

Vigencia de Marx

Jacques Derrida, filósofo francés, escribía: “lo quieran o no; lo sepan o no; todos los hombres y mujeres de la tierra, son, en cierta medida, deudores de Marx”. Una deuda que tiene como horizonte para saldarla, develar la estructura de cómo funciona el capitalismo y su posibilidad de transformación.

Las tesis fundamentales del barbudo de Tréveris, que incluso la humanidad no conoce en su totalidad, se contrastan con el movimiento real de la economía y de la política. Resaltamos tres tesis políticas, que a 200 años del natalicio, a 170 años de la publicación del Manifiesto Comunista y a 150 años de la publicación de El Capital, siguen actuales, siguen inspirando rebeldías y siguen promoviendo cambios.

Naturaleza explotadora del capitalismo: Cuando Naomi Klein publicó en el año 2000 su libro best seller No Logo: El poder de las marcas, el mundo de forma hipócrita se escandalizó. Las relaciones inhumanas y explotadoras que marcas reconocidas como Nike, Mc Donald’s, Tommy, Starbucks, Microsoft, etc., tenían en su proceso de producción de mercancías en la periferia mundial, era una radiografía de un planeta miserable, injusto y desigual.

Y aunque la investigación de la activista canadiense estaba orientada al poder económico, político y cultural de las marcas en un mundo globalizado, la perspectiva – que es marxismo puro y duro – estaba en describir un mundo donde absolutamente todo se convierte en mercado: las cosas, los servicios, el saber y el vivir.

Más allá del fenómeno de globalización en universalizar la privatización de los bienes comunes de la humanidad, que a todas luces es una realidad, el carácter explotador del sistema está vigente. Las fábricas que analizó Marx en la Inglaterra del siglo XIX, se encuentran hoy en India, China o Perú. Los capitalistas aristocráticos ingleses que blanquean su botín haciéndolo circular y que luego lo convertían en astronómicas ganancias, y que Marx también analizó, se encuentran hoy impunes haciendo multimillonarios negocios en Dubái, Shanghái o Nueva York.

La lucha de clases: La derecha se ha dedicado en los últimos tiempos a recitar de manera religiosa, que la izquierda promueve el “odio de clases”. Argumentan que detrás del discurso marxista por justicia social y cambios estructurales, se esconde un resentimiento hacia el individuo, hacia el emprendimiento, hacia la humanidad.

Y aunque se equivocan en invocar el odio como estrategia política, no se equivocan en objetivo de la crítica. En Marx y sus marxismos, existe un malestar convertido en pelea social contra el individuo narciso y mercantilizado, contra la explotación disfrazada de emprendimiento, contra la “humanidad” deshumanizada, contra la brecha, contra la desigualdad, contra el 1% que controla lo que el 99% produce.

La historia es contradicción, es lucha de clases. No como una noción sociológica, pues hoy el mundo y su compleja sociedad no se dividen unilateralmente entre burguesía y proletariado. La lucha de clases en perspectiva es una noción estratégica, una fuente de pelea, un recurso de interpretación, una inspiración, una oportunidad para cambiarlo todo.

¡Proletarios de todos los países, uníos!: Lo que pareciese una consigna, que incluso la derecha sabe que es imponente e incómoda, es un proyecto histórico. La armonía entre interpretación del mundo y su necesidad de transformarlo, está en la potencia de hacerlo colectivamente. Incluso Ontiveros lo reconoce, esun llamado a las armas”, al cambio político, a la revolución social.

Y mientras exista el sistémico capitalismo, con sus aberrantes niveles de desigualdad y pobreza, existirán oprimidos, y por supuesto, Marx. Los trabajadores no tienen nada que perder, salvo sus cadenas, fue la invitación combativa con que inicia el Manifiesto. Hoy la consigna incomoda y que tanto pavor causa, sigue vigente. La gente, en cambio, tiene un mundo que ganar, un porvenir que conquistar.

Límites

Por supuesto que la obra de Marx tiene límites. Dos ejemplos. Por un lado, el sujeto de la historia, llamado a los cambios revolucionarios, ya no es el proletariado abstracto que muchos marxólogos invocan como redentor; es un sujeto diverso que debe alimentarse de la pluralidad de la realidad social, donde el movimiento de mujeres, Lgbti, juvenil, cultural, etc., marcan nuevas contradicciones y dibuja nuevos horizontes de pelea. Un sujeto en construcción; una mayoría social explotada e inconforme.

Por otro lado, el desarrollo ilimitado de las fuerzas productivas es impensado hoy, o que lo diga la naturaleza, que si tuviera cabeza, cuerpo, manos y piernas, sería la primera en lanzar piedras al banco, pues en 200 años de existencia de capitalismo y en 80 años de experiencia soviética, la depredación de recursos, territorios y ecosistemas fue y ha sido una desgarradora realidad.

Colosal

David Riazanov, aquel revolucionario ruso obsesionado con la obra de Marx y Engels y purgado ignominiosamente por Stalin, en una visita a Laura Marx tuvo acceso a lo que llamó La Confesión. Un documento de juego en el seno de la familia Marx, donde las niñas preguntaban y él contestaba. En este documento, que es mucho más largo, se puede observar el proyecto humano y combativo de Marx, un proyecto colosal:

“Su idea de felicidad: La lucha

Su idea de desgracia: La sumisión

Su color preferido: El rojo

Su lema preferido: Duda de todo”.

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