De los mártires de Chicago a hoy

132

Alfonso Velásquez

¿En qué consiste mi crimen? En que he trabajado por el establecimiento de un sistema social en el que es imposible el hecho de que mientras unos amontonan millones utilizando las máquinas, otros caen en la degradación y en la miseria. Así como el agua y el aire son libres para todos, así la tierra y las invenciones de los hombres de ciencia deben ser utilizadas en beneficio de todos. Vuestras leyes están en oposición con las de la Naturaleza, y mediante ellas robáis a las masas el derecho a la vida, a la libertad y al bienestar… Yo no combato individualmente a los capitalistas; combato el sistema que da el privilegio. Mi más ardiente deseo es que los trabajadores sepan quiénes son sus enemigos y quiénes son sus amigos. Todo lo demás yo lo desprecio; desprecio el poder de un gobierno inicuo, sus policías y sus espías. Nada más tengo que decir”. Discurso de Samuel Fielden, obrero textil de 39 años, quien nació en Inglaterra y fue condenado a la horca en Chicago.

Datos relevantes

Pasados 132 años de la huelga de Chicago, a 150 años de El Capital de Karl Marx y a 100 de la Revolución Bolchevique, las condiciones de las y los trabajadores continúan siendo de muchas dificultades. Aun así, hay que recordar que se han logrado algunas reivindicaciones, se logró durante algún tiempo y en algunas naciones condiciones dignas en el trabajo, fundamentalmente en aquellas que lograron llegar a un modo de producción distinta al capitalismo (los de las exrepúblicas integradas en la URSS), de los denominados “Estados de bienestar” en Europa, a partir del debilitamiento de este modo de producción, la revancha en lo social ha sido impresionante, veamos:

La implantación del proceso de globalización capitalista con características neoliberales, ha permitido que existan hoy 1.400 millones de personas con contratos precarios, 250 millones de personas desempleadas, más de 800 millones de personas que padecen hambre y millones de niños que deben trabajar en vez de asistir a la escuela.

Un grupo cada vez más reducido de capitalistas han amontonado miles de millones de dólares, mientras millones de seres humanos, incluidos niños y niñas, mueren de hambre, todos los días, en varias regiones del mundo.

Corporaciones multinacionales y trasnacionales se han apropiado de enormes extensiones de tierra, a costa de miles de millones de campesinos que no tienen dónde cultivar el pancoger, aproximándose una crisis alimentaria sin precedentes.

Las condiciones para obtener una pensión de vejez, cada vez son más difíciles de cumplir y las corporaciones financieras se apoderan de los ahorros de los y las trabajadoras para sus negociados, denominados inversiones, y quedándose con una parte de esos ahorros.

La salud pasó de ser un derecho a ser una mercancía, siendo cada vez más complicado obtener una atención adecuada; pese a ello, de todas maneras cobran por un servicio absolutamente ineficiente.

El contrato de trabajo ha ido desapareciendo paulatinamente en el mundo capitalista y con ello los derechos a cesantías, vacaciones remuneradas, capacitaciones y demás beneficios que otrora beneficiaran a la mayoría de las y los trabajadores. Debilitando con ello los derechos de asociación y negociación colectivas.

Se necesita con urgencia establecer métodos novedosos de asociación para lograr avanzar a una sociedad progresista en la que se rescaten esos valores conculcados por las oligarquías desde las corporaciones trasnacionales que además dominan los escenarios internacionales, llámense OEA para el caso de las Américas, OIT para el caso laboral global, OMC, OCDE y otras desde las cuales se impone a las naciones pobres y dependientes toda la política antisocial imperialista.

Este Primero de Mayo, el proletariado a nivel internacional saldrá a las calles a exigir mejores condiciones de vida y de trabajo y a construir un mundo en paz con justicia social.

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