Los engaños de Carrasquilla

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El ministro Carrasquilla en debate en el Senado.

El ministro de Hacienda pretende disfrazar una reforma tributaria como ley de financiamiento en las primeras discusiones del Presupuesto

Redacción política

Desde hace dos semanas, las comisiones económicas del Congreso de la República han venido preparando las discusiones del Presupuesto del país para la vigencia del año 2019.

Las reuniones de las comisiones han sido a puerta cerrada a expensas del Ministerio de Hacienda y se han escuchado todo tipo de propuestas que van desde la ampliación de los rubros a la inversión social o la reducción del pago de la deuda que se lleva la mitad de los 253 billones de pesos.

Modificaciones

El Presupuesto se ha modificado entre las dos semanas previas al inicio de la discusión, el pasado lunes 24 de septiembre. De una parte, se disminuyó el rubro de la deuda en 13 billones de pesos que fueron adjudicados a distintos sectores. Aunque la redistribución del presupuesto fue bien vista por la mayoría de las bancadas, excepto por el incremento del presupuesto de inversión para el sector defensa.

En la nueva redistribución el Ministerio modificó sustancialmente las consultas populares. En adelante, el instrumento de participación ciudadana utilizado en las poblaciones con vocación minera para determinar, si allí se pueden iniciar proyectos de extracción, quedará a cargo de los entes territoriales en cuanto a su financiación. La jugada es maestra para desincentivar las consultas pues su financiación demanda inmensos recursos que los municipios no estarían dispuestos a cubrir.

Desangrar Colpensiones

“Es supremamente inconveniente, le transfiere el costo de estas a los entes territoriales, el cual es asumido hoy por la Registraduría. Es una manera de limitar la participación democrática y la autodeterminación de las comunidades por un criterio presupuestal, sobre todo en lo que tiene que ver con las consultas sobre la explotación minera”, le dijo a VOZ el economista de la Universidad Nacional, Santiago Castaño.

En la idea de desfinanciamiento de entidades el Gobierno Duque manifestó su intención de entregarle la carga de los beneficios pensionales BEPS, hoy financiados directamente por el presupuesto del Ministerio de Hacienda, a Colpensiones sin que se le aumente a esta entidad su presupuesto anual. Por ello la bancada Decentes presentó una proposición negativa: “Trasladar la financiación del funcionamiento de los BEPS a Colpensiones, con cargo en sus excedentes financieros, tendría unas repercusiones económicas fuertes sobre Colpensiones, lo que podría generar una crisis financiera de la entidad y una eventual quiebra, lo cual resulta negativo para el país ya que la mayoría de pensionados de Colombia se encuentra en el régimen administrado por Colpensiones. La idea de acabar con esta entidad es un atentado real contra el derecho a la pensión de los colombianos, razón por la cual es inconveniente la propuesta por el gobierno”.

Antecedentes

La restructuración del Estado hace parte del Presupuesto. Según el Ministerio de Hacienda, dicha proposición tiene que ver con la facilidad para el Gobierno nacional de fusionar o crear nueva institucionalidad que permitan la ejecución de los principales proyectos en el próximo cuatrienio y facilitar lo que será la discusión que se avecina del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo.

La propuesta llama la atención por ser Alberto Carrasquilla su autor y por sus actuaciones en la misma cartera bajo el mandato del expresidente Álvaro Uribe, que con propuestas de esa índole le quitó a los pensionados del país una mesada a cambio de remunerar con bonificaciones jugosas a los altos funcionarios del Estado.

“Se crea un artículo nuevo sobre la reducción de gastos de funcionamiento del Estado, autorizando al Gobierno nacional para adelantar el programa de renovación de la administración pública. Este es el cheque en blanco del que usted ha hablado”, señaló Castaño.

Entre las discusiones que se presentaron antes de la radicación de la ponencia final, se intentó introducir un instrumento de política económica que la cartera de Hacienda ha llamado Ley de Financiamiento mediante los “combos Carrasquilla”. Son una suerte de tres menús para aumentar el impuesto al consumo a todos los productos de la canasta familiar y ampliar la base gravable, es decir, que mayor número de personas paguen impuestos.

“Presentar una reforma tributaria disfrazada de lo que él llama ley de financiamiento, engañando al país, porque contiene los mismos elementos de la ley, combos de recaudo que es lo mismo a un IVA, ampliación de beneficios a grandes empresas mientras que se acaban las exclusiones de los productos de la canasta familiar. Se lo hemos dicho al ministro en las reuniones a puerta cerrada y en las discusiones de la comisión”, señaló la senadora Aída Avella.

Beneficios tributarios

Todos los gobiernos tienen una tradición de desfinanciamiento anual del orden de 20 a 30 billones, y el gobierno Duque no es la excepción. Al contrario, es la excusa con la cual pretenden presentar una reforma tributaria o una ley de Financiamiento que no ataca la nuez del desfinanciamiento del presupuesto fruto de los beneficios fiscales a las multinacionales.

Son en total 229 exclusiones tributarias que benefician actualmente a las grandes empresas y multinacionales con asiento en el país, a las que la oposición ha dicho, se deben revisar y decidir cuáles deben permanecer y cuáles no; pero sobre todo determinar qué benéficos deben ser erradicados.

Por ello, señaló la senadora de la UP, Aída Avella: “Una cosa es el debate del Presupuesto General de la Nación y otra muy diferente la reforma tributaria o como la quiera llamar, que lo único que busca es recaudar impuestos, gravar la canasta familiar hasta llegar a 25 billones de pesos que el gobierno no es capaz de conseguir de otra manera sin afectar a los colombianos, pero sí favoreciendo a multinacionales y empresas y sin ni siquiera explicarnos cuáles son las variables, el modelo empleado para implementar los tales combos de los que habla”.

De igual manera, Avella, recalcó que no sólo, no está de acuerdo con el gravamen de la canasta familiar, sino con la devolución anticipada del IVA a los sectores más pobres de la población, que “no es más que otro engaño de parte del ministro que nos hace creer que la DIAN tiene toda la experiencia para realizar las devoluciones e implementar el mecanismo de compensación que tampoco es claro”.

Los congresistas Decentes llamaron a la movilización social como mecanismo de protesta en contra de las decisiones oficiales respecto a los rubros presupuestales destinados únicamente a la deuda, el gasto militar y los beneficios económicos a los grandes empresarios.

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