Listo decreto para Fondo de Tierras

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Proyectos productivos en Puerto Claver, El Bagre (Antioquia). Foto Bibiana Ramírez - APR.

El trámite de este decreto ley ha enfrentado múltiples obstáculos, que reflejan las limitaciones de la voluntad política del Gobierno para avanzar en las soluciones estructurales que requiere la RRI

Agencia Prensa Rural

La última semana en la Comisión de Seguimiento, Impulso y Verificación a la Implementación del Acuerdo de Paz (Csivi) estuvo agitada por la discusión de los temas que deben resolverse antes del cierre de las facultades presidenciales.

Ante el vencimiento del plazo que le había concedido el Congreso, por medio de facultades especiales, para expedir decretos de ley que impulsarán la implementación del Acuerdo de paz, el primer mandatario aceleró la firma de varios documentos, en especial cuatro decretos.

Las cuatro normas expedidas tienen que ver con: 1. Formalización de la tierra, que incluye distribución de tres millones de hectáreas a familias sin acceso; 2. Programas de desarrollo con enfoque territorial, para 170 municipios afectados por la pobreza y el conflicto; 3. Modernización del catastro rural, para que al 2023 esté totalmente actualizado este sistema; y 4. Vías terciarias, para construir 2.500 Km de carreteras, que aumenten la competitividad del campo.

De acuerdo con las cuentas del Gobierno, hasta ahora van tres reformas constitucionales y tres leyes aprobadas por el Congreso, al igual que 15 decretos expedidos pensando en el posconflicto.

La delegación de las FARC-EP informó que el decreto ley a través del cual se adoptan las medidas mínimas para facilitar el acceso y formalización de la tierra y se crea el Fondo de Tierras, continuará el trámite para su expedición de forma que pueda ser firmado por el Presidente de la República en uso de sus facultades extraordinarias, habilitando así la posibilidad de iniciar la materialización del Acuerdo de Reforma Rural Integral (RRI), cuyo eje central es la garantía efectiva del acceso a la tierra por parte de los campesinos y población rural del país.

El trámite de este decreto ley enfrenta múltiples obstáculos, que reflejan las limitaciones de la voluntad política del Gobierno para avanzar en las soluciones estructurales que requiere la RRI.

Sin embargo se acordaron formulaciones para el mejoramiento de los procedimientos de delimitación y constitución de zonas de reserva campesina, para el efectivo cumplimiento del decreto 1777/96. El Gobierno nacional también se comprometió a incorporar en el proyecto de ley de tierras que se va a tramitar en el Congreso por vía rápida el acceso a derechos de uso para campesinos.

Adicionalmente se expidió también, después de consulta previa, el decreto sobre catastro multipropósito y otro mediante el cual se da término de 30 días para diseñar el plan nacional de vivienda rural.

Otro frente de trabajo han sido los Programas de Desarrollo con Enfoque Territorial (PDET), que operarán en los municipios más afectados por el conflicto. Se acordaron los términos del decreto que crea los PDET, así como uno que abre concursos docentes en municipios PDET y otro que amplía a dos años y medio el término para que las universidades hagan el proceso de acreditación de alta calidad de programas de licenciaturas en dichos municipios. Al cierre de esta edición se estaba discutiendo el decreto que crea el Programa Nacional Integral de Sustitución de Cultivos de Uso Ilícito.

Los asuntos de la RRI se tramitarán por proyecto de ley ante el Congreso.

Un trámite complicado

El 5 de mayo la Csivi-FARC había dado a conocer en su boletín Nº 1 los avances obtenidos en relación con la implementación de la normativa de la RRI, que corresponde al punto uno, “Hacia un nuevo campo colombiano. Reforma Rural Integral” del Acuerdo Final. Hasta ese momento los miembros de los equipos de la Csivi, Gobierno y FARC-EP hacían una comparación del proyecto de “decreto ley para la democratización del acceso y uso adecuado de la tierra”, con el fin de llegar a unos consensos sobre lo que se presentaría en las plenarias del Congreso.

Sin embargo, el 14 de mayo, la Csivi-FARC comunicó al país que el Gobierno nacional había presentado de forma unilateral el proyecto “Por el cual se adoptan disposiciones de ordenamiento social de la propiedad y tierras rurales y se dictan otras disposiciones”, acción que “provocó airadas reacciones tanto en los sectores aferrados a la concentración de la tierra, como entre quienes anhelan la desconcentración y democratización que señala el Acuerdo Final de Paz”, según su comunicado Nº 2.

En sesiones anteriores la Csivi, en su conjunto, construyó el proyecto de decreto ley “Por el cual se adoptan medidas para facilitar la implementación de la Reforma Rural Integral completada en el Acuerdo Final en materia de tierras, específicamente el procedimiento para el acceso y formalización y el Fondo de Tierras”. Este proyecto anulaba la ley 160 de 1994, entre otras propuestas, que se consideran un “atentado” contra la RRI; como también lo es el “Derecho Real de Superficie, la Unidad de Producción Rural, la entrega de baldíos y la regularización de la acumulación indebida a sujetos diferentes a los establecidos en el Acuerdo Final de Paz”. Así estableció la Csivi-FARC en su comunicado.

El proyecto de ley acordado por la Csivi se estableció el 12 de mayo y había sido sometido a consulta previa, con el fin de saber las valoraciones de las comunidades étnicas, actores destacados en el Acuerdo Final. Todo esto dejó entrever a la Csivi-FARC que “el carácter fragmentado que ha impuesto el Gobierno nacional, reflejado en la presentación unilateral de iniciativas legislativas desarticuladas, resulta altamente inconveniente y deja abierto el riesgo de que la tradicional dispersión y desarticulación interinstitucional persista, poniendo en riesgo la implementación de la RRI”.

Ocho días después de este pronunciamiento, el 21 de mayo, la Csivi-FARC informó al país: “la Oficina del Alto Comisionado para la Paz se comprometió a enviar tal proyecto a la Mesa Permanente de Concentración con los Pueblos y Organizaciones Indígenas para el procedimiento de consulta previa. Sin embargo, el día de ayer conocimos que el proyecto radicado no sólo no corresponde a la versión elaborada conjuntamente por la Csivi, sino que introdujo cambios abiertamente contrarios a las disposiciones acordadas”. La versión radicada actualmente se reduce a dar “beneficio a grandes propietarios a través del otorgamiento de derechos de unos” y limitar la “participación comunitaria”.

Las organizaciones agrarias, que siguen de cerca la implementación de los acuerdos, se mantienen en alerta ante cualquier eventual acto de traición al Acuerdo Final de Paz y a los campesinos; y más allá de lo que se pueda lograr en lo inmediato, la reforma rural integral seguirá como bandera de lucha del movimiento agrario.

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