Lenin y la Revolución Rusa de 1917


Hernán Ortiz Rivas

El siglo XX de nuestra era, produjo muchos acontecimientos de gran significación, en la historia, uno de ellos, de enorme importancia, es la Revolución Rusa de 1917, que originó grandes cambios, no solo en el interior del extinto imperio zarista, sino en el mundo entero, cambios que todavía perduran en nuestro planeta. Antes de 1917, el imperio ruso era gobernado por los zares de la dinastía Romanov; en su territorio coexistían unas estructuras semifeudales y un capitalismo no muy desarrollado; en Rusia, mitad europea y mitad asiática, como la caracterizaba Lenin, la industrialización iba lenta, la sociedad estaba dividida en dos grupos: los nobles y los campesinos, los obreros carecían de un peso sustantivo en el imperio, poco a poco alcanzaron a tener gran fuerza socio-económica y política, en su proceso y destino históricos, que los llevó a ocupar un sitio dominante en el Estado.

Los últimos zares se esforzaron por modernizar la economía e introducir reformas sociales; pero, ya era tarde, para detener el proceso revolucionario que se venía gestando desde 1905, proceso liderado por un personaje histórico de gran altura teórica y práctica, Vladimir Ilich Lenin, seudónimo elegido por el joven Ulianov, para su vida futura de luchas revolucionarias, con el cual, pasó a las primeras páginas del comunismo, las luchas populares y la historia contemporánea. La genialidad de Lenin radicó en continuar el marxismo, aplicándolo a un espacio geográfico concreto, Rusia, para servir de ejemplo, al servicio de todos los pueblos del planeta tierra.

La gran obra

La Revolución Rusa de 1917, dirigida por Lenin, fue obra de los campesinos, obreros, soldados, vale decir, del pueblo que logró derrocar el imperio zarista del último monarca, Nicolás II, lo que produjo la abolición del absolutismo, a la vez que originó el comienzo de un gobierno provisional que duró poco tiempo, para desembocar en la gloriosa Revolución Soviética, bajo el mando de Lenin y la instauración del primer Estado Socialista del mundo, desafortunadamente derrocado a fines del siglo pasado.

En todo caso, la Revolución Rusa de 1917, debe valorarse como un grandioso hecho histórico de la edad contemporánea. Resulta un tanto paradójico que la primera revolución socialista triunfante, en el mundo, se hubiese producido en una nación que no estaba a la cabeza del capitalismo, que no tenía una tradición política ni ideológica de luchas populares, que la gobernaba una monarquía repudiada en Europa. No se puede perder de vista,  que esa Revolución estuvo enmarcada, por el conflicto global de 1914, la Primera Guerra Mundial, que influyó también en la crisis del imperio ruso de los Romanov, que tenían muchos conflictos diplomáticos con varias naciones de Europa. La Primera Guerra Mundial fue la causa externa que contribuyó a la crisis de las monarquías de los Romanov, los Habsburgo, los Hohenzollern. Este hecho histórico unido al de mayor importancia, la Revolución Rusa de 1917, comandada por el gran Lenin posibilitó que los bolcheviques llegaran al poder en octubre de ese año.

De ahí en adelante vino un periodo de guerras civiles (1918-1921), que fueron ganadas por el ejército rojo, comandado en su tiempo por Trotski, que era el héroe del momento. Terminadas las guerras civiles, el Estado y la sociedad soviética pudieron consolidarse y triunfar, bajo la dirección de Stalin, con sus planes quinquenales. La Revolución Rusa de 1917, tiene una importancia cercana a la Revolución Francesa de 1789, las dos, pertenecen a la modernidad, marcan hitos de mucha importancia, en la humanidad, ambas pueden considerarse como proceso de emancipación de los pueblos, la primera inspirada en el socialismo de Marx, Engels, Lenin; la segunda en el liberalismo clásico, doctrinal, de los grandes pensadores de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII, al estilo de Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau, por citar unos poquísimos ejemplos.

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