¿A qué le apunta la oposición en el Congreso?

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Bancada de los Decentes. Foto Campaña.

Una oposición férrea al Plan de Desarrollo y lograr sacar adelante las iniciativas de implementación y justicia social serán las tareas de las bancadas de oposición

Simón Palacio
@Simonhablando 

Por primera vez en Colombia la bancada de la oposición no es homogénea y menos unipartidista, es un bancada de bancadas cuyo objetivo fundamental es hacerle control político a un gobierno que cuenta con el apoyo de toda la clase corrupta colombiana, con mayoría parlamentaria y una sed de revancha contra las fuerzas políticas que con determinación se plantarán en la trinchera de salvar los acuerdos de paz, la implementación y velar por justicia social. También será una oposición en constante movilización.

Los asuntos de gobierno serán cuestionados en la medida en que estos sean lesivos a los intereses que defiende la oposición en las bancadas de Decentes, entre la que se encuentran los partidos Unión Patriótica, ASI, Mais y Progresistas; Polo Democrático Alternativo y FARC, así como como congresistas del Partido Verde que al cierre de esta edición aún no habían discutido su posición entre independientes u oposición. La primera gran oposición será al Plan Nacional de Desarrollo que se vislumbra nefasto para el interés de la clase trabajadora, la clase media y los pequeños y medianos empresarios.

De la lista de iniciativas parlamentarias del paquete legislativo para la paz que tiene previsto el trabajo de las bancadas de oposición, el senador Iván Cepeda, señaló la necesidad de priorizar la de mayor avance parlamentario o aquellas estratégicas para la oposición: “Queremos sacar adelante iniciativas sustanciales para la paz y los desafíos sociales. Hay procesos con un recorrido al cual debemos aportar e impulsar lo que falte de algunos proyectos de ley o tomar la iniciativa de ejecutar los que hasta ahora no han iniciado un tránsito legislativo. Son proyectos sustanciales para nosotros”.

Mientras el equipo de gobierno entrante va conformando su gabinete y los partidos de la bancada de gobierno muestran sus fuerzas en la conformación de las mesas directivas del Congreso y los cargos administrativos del mismo, la oposición se prepara para afrontar los temas más importantes para el país.

Los temas pendientes

La oposición estrenará Estatuto, pero tendrán una tarea primordial, darle continuidad a once iniciativas que se vienen trabajando con los parlamentarios de izquierda, en asuntos de implementación de acuerdos de paz, lucha social, protección a la vida, protección ambiental y política social. Una de las iniciativas se trata del tratamiento penal diferenciado a los cultivadores de hoja de coca, marihuana y amapola, que hace parte del paquete de medidas legales que desarrollan el acuerdo de paz entre las FARC-EP y el gobierno nacional.

Ese proyecto ya ha sido socializado por las organizaciones sociales que acompañan a los campesinos cultivadores que han elevado recomendaciones concernientes a los planes de desarrollo social y de programas de sustitución voluntaria de cultivos que en su mayor parte están en el congelador por falta de garantías de seguridad, ante la inminente amenaza paramilitar, para los cultivadores que ya tomaron la decisión de cambiar la vocación de sus cultivos.

Circunscripciones de paz

En el último debate se hundió el acto legislativo que les entregaba a las víctimas presencia en el Congreso de Colombia, mediante la elección de 16 representaciones de víctimas venidas de los territorios escenarios de violencia. Esa iniciativa, que también hace parte de la implementación legislativa de los acuerdos de paz, quedó en el limbo jurídico pues culminado el trámite legislativo la iniciativa se hundió, y con ella la presencia de las víctimas en el Congreso. El nuevo Congreso deberá retomar la discusión, con el aval del nuevo gobierno y sus mayorías en el Congreso, para cumplir lo pactado.

Garantías a la protesta social

Las garantías para la protesta social es otro de los temas que no fueron evacuados en la pasada legislatura y que sigue en vilo. El objetivo del proyecto es darle derechos a los movimientos sociales y ciudadanos para que ejerzan sin represión la protesta, pero también entregarle instrumentos jurídicos para que ese derecho no quede solamente en la movilización en las calles sino que tengan espacios de interlocución con las autoridades e instituciones e incluso tener derecho a la libre expresión y la réplica cuando se trata de versiones oficiales en contra de quienes protesten.

Tipificación del paramilitarismo

Otra deuda que deja la carente voluntad política del gobierno saliente y su bancada fue la reforma penal para incluir al paramilitarismo como tipo penal sancionable en la norma. Apenas se avanzó en el mandato constitucional de prohibir la conformación de grupos paramilitares. Tuvieron que pasar cinco décadas de violencia atroz ejercida por organizaciones criminales armadas, impulsadas por el Estado, para reconocer que tal criminalidad debe desaparecer del país y elevar su prohibición a rango constitucional, y por consiguiente tipificar su conducta pero esto último no se ha logrado.

Reforma política

La reforma política es otro de los asuntos que serán retomados por la bancada de la paz en la siguiente legislatura. Ya sin fastrack, la reforma tendrá un camino más complejo. No solamente requiere de la voluntad de los partidos de gobierno en impulsar modificaciones al sistema electoral que lo haga más transparente según lo previsto en el acuerdo de paz.

La transformación de la autoridad electoral, hoy en manos de los partidos tradicionales, cambio de las reglas de juego para las disputas electorales, mutación del voto manual al voto electrónico, financiación estatal a todos los partidos que participan en la justa electoral, son entre otras, las principales recomendaciones para una verdadera reforma política.

Lucha social

La principal iniciativa del paquete de prioridades de la bancada de oposición al gobierno Duque, tienen que ver con elderecho al agua. Un proyecto que fue radicado por el exsenador Jorge Prieto y que aspira a darle prioridad al consumo humano del recurso hídrico y que el gobierno deba proteger las fuentes de agua, cursa su segundo de cuatro debates y está pendiente para ser retomado en la siguiente legislatura.

Las bancadas de la oposición ya señalaron que volverán a presentar el proyecto de ley que reduce los aportes de los pensionados a salud de un 12% en la actualidad a un 4%. Dicho proyecto fue un consenso de todas las bancadas pero fue el Presidente Juan Manuel Santos quien lo objetó con el argumento del costo fiscal.

Decentes y el Polo Democrático presentarán de nuevo el proyecto que espera cuente con el respaldo de todas las bancadas del Congreso, incluyendo la de gobierno, pues el Centro Democrático ya había acompañado la iniciativa.

La novedad del trabajo de la bancada por la paz en materia legislativa será la presentación de un proyecto de ley para condonar la deuda del Icetex para 60 mil deudores, profesionales o desempleados que no solamente han tenido que acudir a los planes de refinanciamiento de una deuda que se paga en varias oportunidades. La propuesta ha venido siendo trabajada por las organizaciones de usuarios y deudores del Icetex y por la campaña de la Colombia Humana que había pateado la eliminación de esa institución financiera y la condonación de la deuda de todos los usuarios del sistema de préstamos.

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