El latifundio y los problemas sociales

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Familia y vivienda campesina.

José Ramón Llanos

El problema agrario, sin lugar a dudas, constituye el elemento generador de los conflictos sociales del país a lo largo de la historia republicana. Dada la forma como el Gobierno ha afrontado el desarrollo del primer punto del Acuerdo Final de Paz, las dilaciones, las interpretaciones discutibles y las expresiones normativas como la ley que crea las Zonas de Interés para el Desarrollo Rural (Zidres), hemos considerado necesario elaborar algunas reflexiones sobre esta cuestión.

El Acuerdo Final de Paz, a pesar de que considera que la solución de los problemas del sector rural es la base para lograr una “paz estable y duradera”, no vemos la voluntad del gobierno para afrontar las soluciones o acciones que conduzcan a resolver la alta concentración de la tierra y los problemas de exclusión y extrema pobreza del campo colombiano. El Gobierno está comprometido porque incluso caracterizó la problemática rural, la transformación del campo y su importancia para garantizar la paz, así: “Que a juicio del Gobierno esa transformación debe contribuir a reversar los efectos del conflicto y a cambiar las condiciones que han facilitado la persistencia de la violencia en el territorio.” Pero pasado más de un año de la firma del documento, no se ven las políticas adecuadas para “la transformación del campo”.

Los opositores a las reformas

En parte, las indecisiones para desarrollar la normativa que inicie la aplicación del contenido de los acuerdos pactados con la insurgencia, están determinados por el saboteo legislativo y las amenazas de los expropiadores de la tierra con el uso de la violencia paramilitar para evitar la restitución de las propiedades a los campesinos desplazados.

También está la influencia de los inversionistas rurales que pretenden apropiarse de baldíos o mantener los ya apropiados, para incrementar la explotación del campo. No desean que haya medianas y pequeñas unidades de producción campesina, sino expropiados campesinos, convertidos en asalariados explotados. Como se ve, la cuestión es de cobardía frente a los latifundistas y complacencia con los inversionistas rurales: azucareros, palmeros, ganaderos, etc.

Recordemos que ya desde los años veinte del siglo XX, los sectores progresistas, la academia y liberales como Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, habían identificado la tenencia de la tierra, el latifundio ocioso y su consecuente el minifundio improductivo, no solo como una cuestión injustificable, económicamente, factor de atraso, sino algo peor, causa de la violencia. Eso explica por qué desde esa época se introdujo en el lenguaje político-social y en las propuestas de los movimientos progresistas la concepción de reforma agraria.

A lo largo del siglo pasado es tal vez la propuesta más discutida, tanto entre los partidarios de la reforma, como entre sus opositores. Incluso a raíz de la Revolución Cubana, por el temor a que efectivamente la Sierra Maestra se extendiera por los Andes latinoamericanos, hasta los Estados Unidos, impusieron a los gobiernos continentales sumisos reformas agrarias de pacotilla.

Latifundio y rémora social

No es que las dilaciones, vueltas y revueltas del presidente Juan Manuel Santos, están justificadas porque la situación inequitativa e irracional del campo ha cambiado positivamente de súbito. Acudamos a los datos del reciente Censo Agropecuario Nacional, pero veamos no solo las cifras sobre tenencia de la tierra. Examinemos también las secuelas de ese reparto excluyente de la propiedad del suelo y de las consecuentes formas del gobierno local y la ausencia de la aplicación regional de algunas políticas nacionales positivas para corregir los entuertos del latifundismo y la omnipotente oposición de los barones de la tierra, quienes impiden a sangre y fuego, por ejemplo, la legal restitución de las tierras expropiadas.

Los datos del Censo Nacional Agropecuario

Los resultados del reciente Censo agropecuario 2016, muestran los datos de la concentración del suelo rural: propiedades de mil hectáreas o más son el 0,2 por ciento del total y concentran el 73.8 por ciento del total área rural. Las propiedades que tienen menos de 5 hectáreas, son un millón 669.287 unidades, poseen apenas el dos por ciento del área rural. Esta concentración de la tierra, no solo tiene consecuencias económicas, sino también condiciona el malestar social, el mal vivir.

Es absurdo, por ejemplo que en el siglo XXI haya en las zonas minifundistas un 16,1 por ciento de analfabetismo; un 94 por ciento de las zonas residenciales carezcan de alcantarillado; el 17,1 por ciento de las viviendas carezcan de electricidad el 57,5 de los habitantes de estas zonas usan agua impotable, con las consecuentes altas tasas de morbilidad producto de ese consumo de agua insana. Tan deplorable como la calidad de los servicios públicos, son la naturaleza y los materiales utilizados en la construcción de sus viviendas: solo el 49,1 por ciento de las viviendas censadas tienen paredes y pisos de materiales adecuadas, el resto tienen paredes y pisos como guaduas, madera burda, tablón, cartón, bahareque y vegetales, incluso un 3,1 por ciento, sus paredes son de latas, plásticos y algunas carecen de paredes.

Siendo esa la deplorable y dolorosa situación del campo colombiano y existiendo unas pautas y compromiso en el Acuerdo de La Habana para resolver ese problema, una vez más por encima de la solidaridad y las razones de humanidad, infortunadamente se imponen los interes clasistas del Gobierno nacional.

Fuente:

https://desarrolloinclusivo.com/2015/01/03/campo-colombiano/

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