De las gradas a las calles: hinchadas futboleras políticamente activas (II)

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Cada vez son más estadios donde se ondean banderas antifascistas.
Juan David Lozano Aranguren

Solidaridad y ‘parches’ antifascistas en Colombia

Al igual que en Latinoamérica, las hinchadas colombianas políticamente activas actúan solidariamente entre sí. Muestra de ello es la creación de la Red de Hinchadas Antifascistas de Colombia que reúne a ‘parches futboleros’ como Red Guards United (de Independiente Santa Fe), Honor Antifa (de Once Caldas), Barricada Antifascista (de América de Cali), Barricada Aurirroja (del Deportivo Pereira) y Antifa Medallo (de Independiente Medellín).

La solidaridad entre tales grupos se demuestra con las manifestaciones conjuntas que hacen frente a injusticias que ocurren en el día a día y atañen a la comunidad futbolera. Por ejemplo, el pasado 25 de marzo, la Red de Hinchadas Antifascistas emitió un comunicado denunciando la situación de hacinamiento y represión que vienen sufriendo hinchas de Independiente Medellín y América de Cali durante su regreso de Argentina y Chile, países en los que estaban alentando a sus equipos.

“Fuera de los escenarios políticos, la solidaridad se da en todo contexto. Por ejemplo, durante viajes para ver los partidos. Se hace el recibimiento de los visitantes para que puedan disfrutar del fútbol en paz. También pensamos en proyectos, conversatorios, movilizaciones y demás. Aquí, la unión es lo que prima. El mensaje es claro: el fútbol no nos tiene que dividir.”, dice Mabel Villa, integrante de la Red de Hinchadas Antifascistas.

Ahora, ¿No choca esta manera de entenderse y solidarizarse entre hinchadas antifascistas con la de barras futboleras populares? Pues, la mayoría de nociones socialmente compartidas y noticias hablan de una fuerte rivalidad entre las hinchadas marcada por los colores. Sobre esto, Francisco Mayorga, miembro de Red Guards United, afirma que tiempo atrás, La Guardia (barra de Santa Fe), veía la solidaridad entre ‘parches’ antifa como una falta de seriedad que rompe con todo código de cualquier barra. “Tuvo que pasar un tiempo para que lograran entender que todo tenía que ver con una lucha política un poco más profunda”.

Vale la pena destacar que en el marco de programas como Goles en Paz, las barras futboleras -mal llamadas barras bravas- han establecido mesas de diálogo en el ámbito nacional para discutir puntos comunes y acordar ciertas medidas con el fin de evitar hostilidades y muertes por el fútbol, entre estas el “Sí a las hinchadas visitantes mientras que no haya violencia”. Fuera de tales reuniones, el sociólogo Villanueva agrega que si bien el propio funcionamiento y génesis de las barras populares les hace crear rivalidades con otros grupos, también es cierto que hay formas cooperativas y comunitarias de mutua ayuda entre hinchadas.

Dejando atrás la posible tensión entre las barras y los antifascistas, Francisco Mayorga (miembro del parche antifa de Santa Fe), comenta que la inclusión de Red Guards a La Guardia fue como el de cualquier otro subgrupo. Tuvieron que seguir toda la normativa de la barra, trabajar en salidas, viajar y ayudar con cualquier tema para ir ganándose su lugar.

De ‘opio del pueblo’ a escenario contestatario

En los procesos de gestión y colaboración con La Guardia, Red Guards ha intentado despertar la conciencia crítica de los integrantes de la barra y, a la vez, ha ido cambiando posturas sexistas normalizadas en el entorno. Prueba de lo anterior es la organización de conversatorios públicos en la sede social y cultural de La Guardia para aclarar e interpretar el Acuerdo de Paz entre el Estado colombiano y la guerrilla Farc – Ep.

En la tribuna sur del Campín, además de bombos, banderas rojiblancas y sombrillas, han venido apareciendo frentes (bandera que cuelga del barandal principal de la tribuna) y mini tifos –mensajes compuestos por pancartas– que reivindican las luchas sociopolíticas del parche antifa.

Durante las dos últimas conmemoraciones del Día Internacional de la Mujer, han colgado de los barandales de La Guardia frentes que destacan la presencia femenina dentro de los escenarios futboleros. Uno de estos, pintado por Red Guards, decía: “Por ellas y con ellas… luchando y alentando”. Otra bandera que apareció en la ‘sur’ del Campín, durante el Paro Nacional del 2019, decía: “De las gradas a las calles” haciendo referencia a la lucha política de Red Guards tanto en las tribunas como en escenarios extradeportivos.

Los parches antifascistas adaptan espacios deportivos normalmente ligados a la pasión para difundir sus consignas, luchas e ideales. Colgar un frente en el barandal principal de la barra que reivindique a la mujer no es algo que ocurra usualmente en el entorno futbolero; da cuenta de la incidencia de Red Guards y sus ideales en La Guardia Albi – Roja Sur. Por el lado del otro rojo de Colombia, América de Cali, el ‘parche’ Barricada Antifascista ha desplegado tapatribunas en la tribuna sur del Pascual Guerrero que dicen: “Ama al América, odia el fascismo”.

Las consignas de estos grupos son claras y entre las más compartidas, por lo menos dentro de la Red de Hinchadas Antifascistas de Colombia, están sacar de las gradas todo tipo de acto discriminatorio (ya sea racismo, sexismo, machismos, xenofobia, entre otros), y, la lucha por un fútbol popular fuera de la mercantilización y del manejo de este como un negocio.

Aspectos como el crecimiento de las hinchadas antifascistas -y su accionar-, invitan a reflexionar respecto a los estereotipos generados en torno al fútbol, tales como la asociación directa entre barras y violencia o el entendimiento de este espacio como uno netamente dedicado al ocio. Si bien algunos gobiernos han usado al fútbol como “opio del pueblo” (no olvidemos el partido entre Millonarios y Unión Magdalena transmitido durante la Toma del Palacio de Justicia en 1985), es claro que la culpa no es del deporte sino de los fines para los que es articulado.

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