Sí a la vida, no al fracking

357
Campesino en el puerto Cuatro Bocas, ZRC VRC. Foto Luis Torres - Agencia Prensa Rural.

El Encuentro de comunidades de América Latina impactadas por la explotación de hidrocarburos fue un éxito rotundo: en todas las charlas, conferencias, debates y reuniones se contó con lleno total; también se destaca la altísima calidad académica de los eventos

Grupo de Estudios Extractivos y Ambientales del Magdalena Medio

Comunidades de todo el continente se dieron cita en el corazón del Magdalena Medio para llevar a cabo el Encuentro de comunidades de América Latina impactadas por la explotación de hidrocarburos. Allí compartieron sus distintas experiencias en el tema, especialmente con el fracking en sus territorios.

El evento tuvo una duración de tres días, entre el 30 de agosto y el 1 de septiembre, pero la prensa nacional reportó la llegada de los distintos invitados internacionales con anterioridad, en medio del revuelo ocasionado por la Contraloría General de la Nación unos días antes, cuando su titular, Edgardo Maya Villazón, rechazó categóricamente la utilización del fracking en Colombia.

Los tres días de intenso trabajo fueron un éxito, pero detrás de ello se requirió un esfuerzo de meses donde participaron las distintas organizaciones que hacen parte de la Alianza Colombia Libre de Fracking y la Alianza Latinoamericana Frente al Fracking. Esta última plataforma organizativa permitió contar con una nutrida presencia internacional, incluidos México, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil y los Estados Unidos, que tuvieron la oportunidad de intercambiar con sus pares, con autoridades, con la prensa y, lo más importante: con las comunidades campesinas y de base del Magdalena Medio.

Encuentro con las comunidades

El encuentro con las comunidades fue posible porque el evento no se concentró en el sector urbano de Barrancabermeja, principal ciudad del Magdalena Medio, sino que también salió a los territorios, se visitó Puerto Wilches y San Vicente de Chucurí en el departamento de Santander, Yondó en el departamento de Antioquia, Cantagallo en el departamento de Bolívar y San Martín en el departamento del Cesar. Todos estos son territorios del Magdalena Medio afectados históricamente por megaproyectos extractivistas petroleros y que hoy en día enfrentan la amenaza más directa de sufrir el fracking. Las comunidades del Magdalena Medio conocen mucho el tema.

Se destaca enormemente la visita de la comisión internacional a la ciénaga San Lorenzo, jurisdicción del municipio de Cantagallo, donde las comunidades de la Zona de Reserva Campesina del Valle del Río Cimitarra han sido claras en su negativa a permitir que se adelante un absurdo como el fracking en sus territorios y han reafirmado su intención de concentrar sus esfuerzos económicos y productivos en actividades limpias y sustentables como las agropecuarias. También demandan mayor inversión en infraestructura de transporte, de manera que se facilite el comercio e intercambio de sus productos.

Dentro de lo logrado con el Encuentro se destaca la mayor claridad alcanzada alrededor del tema. Se vieron aspectos técnicos y científicos que corroboran lo sabido empíricamente por las comunidades: el fracking es una técnica de explotación de hidrocarburos totalmente insostenible que produce una contaminación criminal y acaba con el ambiente, el aire y especialmente con el agua; pero también acaba con las estructuras y aparatos productivos de los territorios, condenándolos a la miseria sin recibir nada a cambio.

Este punto es importante porque los impulsores del fracking chantajean y engañan a las comunidades con supuestos empleos que resultan ser muy pocos y de muy mala calidad; por otra parte, la destrucción del aparato productivo que produce el fracking sí aumenta el desempleo. Así entonces, se debe analizar lo siguiente: si es definitivamente mal negocio venderse por un plato de lentejas, en el caso del fracking no hay ni siquiera lentejas.

A nivel macroeconómico se propician la usura, las inversiones buitres y las burbujas, fenómenos que, obviamente, resultan ser perniciosos para la economía en el ámbito nacional.

También se vieron los impactos sociales y culturales, donde quedó claro que esos proyectos aparejan insoslayablemente aumentos en los indicadores de delincuencia, drogadicción, prostitución y mendicidad, al tiempo que destruyen los tejidos sociales de los territorios.

Reacciones

Para finalizar solo resta reiterar que el Encuentro fue un éxito rotundo: en todas las charlas, conferencias, debates y reuniones se contó con lleno total; también se destaca la altísima calidad académica de los eventos, la cual fue ampliamente reconocida. En general se han obtenido muchas evaluaciones positivas de quienes participaron por Colombia y por la comunidad internacional.

Pero el indicador más claro del éxito del evento ha sido la reacción de los impulsores del fracking, ejemplo de ello es Kiko Lloreda, presidente de la Asociación Colombiana del Petróleo, quien habló por radio RCN de Barrancabermeja y lo único que hizo fue llamar ignorante a todo aquel que se opone al fracking. Esto es perfectamente lógico porque se trata de un multimillonario que se lucra con esa actividad y, si bien no tiene ni un solo argumento en su defensa, él cree que no los necesita porque toda la vida ha manejado el país como si fuera una de sus fincas cañeras y nadie nunca le había contradicho, hasta ahora.

Pero no solo la burguesía extractivista atacó el evento. Está el caso de un dirigente sindical como Edwin Palma, quien se reputa líder popular y maneja un discurso salpicado de jeringonza izquierdista pero en la práctica impulsa el fracking y ataca de manera abyecta a cualquiera que se le oponga. En el caso de Lloreda están claros sus motivos para defender el fracking, en el de Palma no tanto.

Lo importante es que ninguno de estos ataques va a detener la lucha de las comunidades del Magdalena Medio por la vida, el agua y el territorio; los insultos y los gritos desesperados de los impulsores del fracking acompasan la marcha triunfal del pueblo de América Latina hacia un futuro diferente de paz y buen vivir.

Madres campesinas atentas a las experiencias de los invitados internacionales en San Lorenzo,
Yondó, Antioquia. Foto Luis Torres – Agencia Prensa Rural.

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