La vida es condición para la minería

104
Aspecto del foro. Foto Ana Milena Velandia - Prensa Rural.

Encuentro de congresistas de la Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Común con comunidades mineras del sur de Bolívar, en la defensa de la Serranía de San Lucas y de su permanencia en el territorio

Ana Milena Velandia Camacho

El sábado 18 de agosto, las comunidades campesinas y mineras de Santa Rosa del Sur (Bolívar) se reunieron con el congresista Jairo Cala y la senadora Sandra Ramírez, ambos del partido político Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Común. El propósito de la visita de los congresistas fue conocer la situación y las propuestas de las propias comunidades.

“Estamos en un encuentro con las comunidades agromineras y campesinas y con las fuerzas vivas de Santa Rosa, estamos tratando las problemáticas que atañen a la región. Aquí surge una preocupación por el tema de la seguridad, el asesinato a los líderes sociales y comunitarios que se está presentando en el país”, afirmó Jairo Cala, representante a la Cámara por Santander. Cala aseguró que “la falta de soluciones por parte del Gobierno, la falta de una propuesta coherente por parte del Gobierno para resolver el problema de la pequeña y mediana minería, declarada ilegal por el Gobierno nacional, genera incoherencias frente a su forma de actuar”.

María Kelly Báez, de la Asociación de Hermandades Agroecológicas y Mineras de Guamocó, comentó que es importante para las comunidades campesinas y mineras agremiarse “porque en este encuentro se desarrollaron cuatro temas de vital importancia para el desarrollo de la región: la pequeña y la gran minería, el tema agropecuario, de infraestructura, y la seguridad para los líderes sociales. Hay al respecto conclusiones concretas discutidas por las comunidades”.

Lo legislativo

Báez aseveró que “de parte de los congresistas tenemos un apoyo directo para las comunidades mineras, en cuanto al tema de trabajar en lo legislativo en la propuesta de introducir un capítulo en el Código Nacional de Minas para reconocer la pequeña y la mediana minería, porque ésta ha sido una economía que ha sustentado a nuestras familias y la condición de vida es la minería”.

Las conclusiones a las que se llegó en este evento fueron el compromiso por parte de las comunidades de adelantar propuestas para resolver las problemáticas y buscar la creación de mecanismos propios para la autoprotección. “Estos encuentros permitirán que se desarrollen sus propuestas en torno a la implementación de los Acuerdos de Paz, sobre todo en lo concerniente a los puntos 1 y 4”, afirmó Jairo Cala.

Las comunidades mineras “están pidiendo que como senadores contribuyamos en la recuperación de la tierra con agricultura, con la posibilidad de permanecer en el territorio y sobre todo pensándonos en el beneficio que puede traer la pequeña minería”, declaró Sandra Ramírez.

El aporte de las comunidades a estos espacios es de vital importancia porque se trata de una región que ha sido azotada por la violencia desde décadas atrás. Esta región, rica en biodiversidad, con la implementación del Acuerdo de Paz, tendría derecho a una circunscripción transitoria para la paz que permitiría la participación política de las poblaciones para dar a conocer sus problemáticas y propuestas desde los territorios. “Es un aporte porque son las comunidades, son las mismas víctimas, las que van a hablar por su tierra, sus territorios y sus derechos; son ellos quienes están proponiendo desarrollo para su propio territorio y éste es un valioso aporte para la implementación de los acuerdos”, agregó Ramírez.

Por una pequeña minería limpia

Las comunidades manifestaron que es necesario el apoyo por parte de los congresistas que hacen parte de la Convergencia por la Vida y la Paz para garantizar y materializar las propuestas de acciones ciudadanas en torno a la defensa y permanencia en el territorio. Así mismo el congresista Jairo Cala informó sobre los posibles riesgos que enfrentará la Serranía de San Lucas, debido a que se están otorgando títulos para la explotación minera y de hidrocarburos en esta zona protegida.

Luz Nerys González, presidenta de la Junta de Acción Comunal de la vereda San Pedro Fijo, manifestó que una de las dificultades que padecen los medianos y pequeños mineros es que no cuentan con una educación técnica y especializada para la extracción de los recursos naturales que promuevan el uso de alternativas limpias en el territorio. “No hemos logrado obtener respuestas por parte del Gobierno ante nuestros llamados, y lo que sí han desarrollado es la prohibición y la estigmatización de nuestra economía tradicional”, añadió González.

También se conversó sobre la propuesta de Parques Nacionales Naturales (PNN) para la conservación institucional de la Serranía de San Lucas, frente a lo que las comunidades manifestaron su desconfianza, pues guardan el temor de que esta figura sea utilizada como mecanismo para desplazar a los campesinos de la región.

Se socializaron en el encuentro los diversos proyectos de ley presentados por el Gobierno de Juan Manuel Santos; uno de ellos es la propuesta 0013 de 2018, según la cual “cualquiera que lo lee dice que Santos implementará la Reforma Rural Integral; pero resulta que no, porque lo que hace es abrir las puertas para que se puedan vender las tierras a multinacionales”, comentó Jairo. Pues afirma que dentro del proyecto de ley se encuentra suscrito que habrá tierras que se declararán de interés nacional. “Cuando el Gobierno nacional decreta un terreno de interés nacional, donde haya una mina que le interesa a una multinacional, sin consultar a la gente, es porque la va a explotar”, agregó Cala.

La conservación, compromiso de las comunidades

Es primordial que estas zonas que han sido históricamente protegidas por las comunidades sigan bajo esta protección de tal manera que nadie pueda entrar a explotar los recursos naturales, conservando las especies endémicas, los humedales y los bosques vírgenes, debido a que la Serranía de San Lucas cuenta con alrededor de 70 mil hectáreas de selva virgen, que aún se conserva en la parte sur y que se conoce como la zona de Línea Amarilla.

Según un estudio realizado por PNN, en conjunto con la Asociación Campesina del Valle del Río Cimitarra y algunas juntas comunales, en 2015 la Serranía de San Lucas conservaba alrededor de 200 especies; dentro de ellas jaguar, danta, paujil de pico azul, mono tití, mono araña, venado, oso de anteojos, entre otros.

La Serranía de San Lucas es el lugar en donde nacen las cuencas de los ríos que van a dar al Cauca y Magdalena, cuenta con unos 40 nacederos de agua que mantienen su calidad y cantidad por la persistencia de las comunidades en la defensa de normas comunitarias de protección. Por lo anterior las comunidades campesinas y mineras están dispuestas a continuar en la defensa de la Serranía para garantizar su permanencia en el territorio y asegurar así una vida digna, con medidas de protección y autoprotección para los líderes sociales del Magdalena Medio.

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