Entre la ultraderecha y la democracia: Brasil, a segunda vuelta el 28 de octubre

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Fernando Haddad y Manuela d´Avila, son la candidatura alternativa al fascismo. Foto twitter.

Con un discurso en el que prometió combatir los altos niveles de violencia y corrupción, el candidato de la ultraderecha nacionalista del Brasil, Jair Bolsonaro, consiguió un 47 por ciento de los votos, en las elecciones del pasado domingo 7 de octubre, frente al aspirante de centro izquierda, Fernando Haddad, que consiguió el 28.7 por ciento de las papeletas.

En estas condiciones, al no alcanzar ninguno de los aspirantes el 50 por ciento de la votación, irán a una segunda vuelta electoral el 28 de octubre próximo, en la que el país con la mayor economía del continente, escogerá entre un proyecto democrático, representado por el candidato del Partido de los Trabajadores, Haddad, y el proyecto neoliberal que representa Bolsonaro.

A nombre de una coalición de ultraderecha denominada Partido Social Liberal, PSL, Bolsonaro, un excapitán del ejército, con 63 años de edad, ha hecho un discurso racista, contra los negros, los indígenas, los homosexuales. Tiene una concepción misógina de la política y manifiesta abiertamente su nostalgia por la anterior dictadura fascista, que enlutó al Brasil en las épocas del llamado ‘Plan Cóndor’.

Contra Venezuela

En materia internacional, ha expresado su odio contra la Revolución Bolivariana en Venezuela, y ha dicho que de llegar al poder, autorizará la instalación de bases militares norteamericanas en Brasil. En medio de una campaña macartista, que algunos calificaron de ‘fake news’, Bolsonaro atacó la candidatura progresista de Haddad. “Los comunistas del Partido de los Trabajadores cerrarán los templos e iglesias, impidiendo que se adore al Señor Dios”. En otro momento de su campaña, aseguró: “La gente cae en cuenta que Brasil no puede seguir por el camino del socialismo. No queremos ser mañana lo que Venezuela es hoy”.

En la orilla contraria se sitúa la candidatura de Fernando Haddad, un economista y profesor universitario que durante los gobiernos del Partido de los Trabajadores creó 18 universidades y 360 institutos federales para incorporar y dar acceso en los centros de educación a negros, mestizos e indígenas, en un país donde se mantienen fuertes tendencias racistas.

Haddad presenta un programa de gobierno similar al de Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, en el que propone eliminar la reforma que dio paso a la flexibilidad laboral y la ley de ajustes fiscales, disposiciones que consiguieron desmontar importantes reivindicaciones sociales de los trabajadores y aumentar el desempleo. En Brasil, de hecho, en la actualidad, hay un registro de 13 millones de desempleados.

El candidato del PT propone una reforma tributaria con un impuesto de renta justo, revocar el congelamiento de la inversión social y las privatizaciones de empresas del Estado, impulsadas por el gobierno de facto de Michel Temer. Propone en materia política reactivar las recomendaciones de la Comisión de la Verdad por crímenes de la dictadura militar, y el desarrollo de una renta básica ciudadana. Dice que Petrobrás debe constituirse en el eje de la economía del Brasil, con precios controlados y una función social.

Como se desprende de estas posturas, en las que no se advierten coincidencias, la campaña electoral, en su segunda fase, se presenta reñida, y el Brasil se encuentra abocado a escoger entre el camino del autoritarismo de extrema derecha y las propuestas democráticas del candidato del Partido de los Trabajadores.

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