La reproducción del capital social en su conjunto

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Estatua de Karl Marx en su ciudad natal Treveris, Alemania. Foto Sean Gallup, Getty Images.

Alberto Maldonado Copello

En la sección tercera del tomo II de El Capital, Marx expone los esquemas de reproducción del capital social en su conjunto. Hasta el momento, en la sección primera del tomo II investigó el proceso de circulación del capital, que pasa por las fases del capital dinero, capital productivo y capital mercancías, indicando cómo durante las fases de circulación el capital desarrolla actividades que generan costos. En la sección segunda, muestra Marx como la rotación del capital, la duración del período desde el momento en que se desembolsa un capital en dinero hasta que retorna incrementado, afecta la magnitud de la plusvalía que se produce en un período determinado.

Finalmente, en la sección tercera (capítulos 18 a 21) aborda Marx el proceso total de la reproducción del capital. El capitalismo es una sociedad que funciona por la competencia de productores privados e independientes que producen con destino al mercado, sin que exista una coordinación previa y una planificación de las necesidades y la producción global de la sociedad, compiten entre ellos para obtener la mayor tajada posible. La producción y la distribución global de la economía es el resultado de la interacción de productores capitalistas y trabajadores, que realizan diariamente millones de ventas y compras, donde, por tanto, hay diversas posibilidades de entorpecimiento y de crisis.

La producción global debe garantizar que se produzcan todos los medios de producción necesarios (máquinas, herramientas, materias primas, etc.) así como los medios de consumo, tanto para los trabajadores como para los capitalistas, que además de los medios necesarios, también consumen bienes de lujo. Se debe producir por tanto un equilibrio entre la demanda agregada y la oferta agregada de las diferentes mercancías: medios de producción y medios de consumo. En el capitalismo, el equilibrio es un accidente, solo ocurre por casualidad, pero teóricamente es un concepto útil para entender los fundamentos de ciertas crisis.

Producción de medios de producción y de consumo

En este análisis, Marx divide la producción capitalista en dos grandes ramas de producción. Por una parte, los capitalistas que se especializan en la producción de los medios de producción que, como hemos dicho, incluyen desde máquinas hasta todo tipo de materias primas, así como las condiciones materiales del trabajo, como edificios, plantas industriales, etc. Estos productores contribuyen a la sociedad con un producto que no entra dentro del consumo individual y se destina al consumo productivo en todas las ramas. El segundo gran sector es el productor de bienes de consumo de todo tipo (alimentos, vestuario, vivienda, recreación, etc.), que a su vez puede dividirse en bienes de consumo necesarios y bienes de consumo de lujo (restaurantes finos, carros de marca, ropa de marca, relojes, etc.).

Los productores de bienes de consumo se encargan de producir todos los medios de consumo que necesitan los trabajadores y capitalistas de su sector, pero también los trabajadores y capitalistas del sector productor de medios de producción. Por tanto, debe haber un intercambio entre los dos grandes sectores, que consiste en que la parte del producto del sector de medios de producción, en salarios y plusvalía, debe ser igual en valor a la parte del producto que en el sector productor de bienes de consumo corresponde al capital constante.

Esquemáticamente la exposición, en condiciones de reproducción simple, es decir, cuando los capitalistas consumen toda la plusvalía, es la siguiente:

Sector I- productor de medios de producción: M1=c1+v1+p1

Sector II- productor de bienes de consumo: M2=c2+v2+p2

Donde c es capital constante, v es capital variable y p, la plusvalía. M1 es la suma de valor de toda la producción de medios de producción y M2 la suma de valor de todos los medios de consumo. El equilibrio teórico se produce cuando v1+p1=c2, es decir, los obreros y capitalistas invierten su dinero obtenido en la producción de medios de producción en la compra de bienes de consumo al sector II, el cual cambia este dinero por medios de producción para reponer su capital constante. Este intercambio consiste por tanto en cambio de valores pero también cambio de mercancías, de valores de uso de distinta naturaleza.

Cuando se trata de reproducción ampliada, es decir, que los capitalistas no consumen toda su plusvalía sino que destinan parte a invertirla de nuevo en ampliar su negocio o en un negocio nuevo o distinto; en vez de demandar tantos bienes de consumo, cambian parte por la compra de medios de producción. Al hacer esto, ampliar la producción, deben contratar un número mayor de trabajadores, en las condiciones de la producción industrial, que son quienes a su vez van a demandar medios de consumo. El equilibrio se vuelve un poco más complicado pero teóricamente debe darse una equivalencia en el intercambio de los dos sectores.

Claves para entender las crisis

Lo relevante es que estos esquemas permiten ver aspectos básicos de la economía en su conjunto, anticipándose a temáticas que hoy se estudian en lo que se conoce como la macroeconomía en otras escuelas, pero a su vez señalan posibles fuentes de desequilibrios y mal funcionamiento de la reproducción en su conjunto en la medida en que las decisiones individuales y los millones de compras y ventas aisladas no conduzcan a que se satisfagan todos los requerimientos en términos de consumo y de producción.

Se habla a partir de aquí de crisis de proporcionalidad entre los sectores y ramas de producción que son una de las características tradicionales de la economía capitalista. Estas crisis afectan la realización de la plusvalía por parte de los capitalistas. Adicionalmente, muestra Marx que en este proceso de entrelazamiento de la circulación de todos los capitales se producen en diversas etapas grandes acumulaciones de dinero (plusvalía ahorrada en espera de inversión, depreciación del capital constante que todavía no se puede reponer físicamente), que son la base del sistema bancario y de crédito, pero también de posibles entorpecimientos asociados a crisis monetarias.

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  2. Yo creo que la ecuación debería ser:

    dc[2](t)/ dt= v[1]+p[1]-c[2](t)
    con una solución
    c[2](t) = v[1]+p[1]+exp(-t)*(-v[1]-p[1]+C[2])
    de modo que en t = infnito, se tiene que
    c[2] = v[1] + p[1]

    Están de acuerdo?

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