La “post-verdad”, o la vieja mentira

184

Jorge E.Villamil P. – Profesor Universidad Distrital

¡Qué es la post-verdad? En 2016, la Universidad de Oxford, Inglaterra, declaró la palabra “Post-truth” (post-verdad) como la palabra del año. Es costumbre que cada año escogen un término que “haya contribuido al desarrollo del idioma inglés”, mediante un mecanismo propio. Ellos mismos definen el término post-verdad, según sus alcances y límites como la palabra que “denota la circunstancia en la que los hechos objetivos tienen menor influencia en la formación de opinión pública que los llamamientos a la emoción y a las creencias personales”, es decir, en la formación de la opinión pública tienen más importancia los imaginarios y las creencias, las emociones y las subjetividades que la objetividad de los hechos, tienen más influencia las mentiras que la verdad objetiva.

Oxford dice que el término «post-verdad» se usa por primera vez en 1992 en un artículo de Steve Tesich en la revista The Nation referente a la invasión a Irak (Irak tiene armas químicas de destrucción masiva) destacando entonces que evoluciona la mentira hacia una verdad ocasional, aun se muestre después que es mentira; pero también Oxford cita otro artículo del Independent poco antes de la elección de Trump en el que se dice: “La verdad se ha devaluado tanto que ha pasado de ser el ideal del debate político a una moneda sin valor”. La revista The Economist en vísperas de las elecciones en Estados Unidos dice: “Trump es el máximo exponente de la política ‘post-verdad’, (…) una confianza en afirmaciones que se ‘sienten verdad’ pero no se apoyan en la realidad”.

Acontecimientos que le dan relevancia a la “post-verdad”

Son muchos en la historia reciente de la humanidad, pero dos o tres acontecimientos marcan la adopción del término post-verdad por Oxford; uno, el triunfo del Brexit en Inglaterra, mediante la manipulación y tergiversación de los hechos liderados por Nigel Farge del partido de la Independencia de Reino Unido y Boris Johnson para sacar al Reino Unido de la Unión Europea (Inglaterra financiará los 350.000 millones de euros del ingreso de Turquía al mercado común europeo); uno segundo es el triunfo de Trump en Estados Unidos (Obama no es estadounidense, Obama creó a ISIS), pero un acontecimiento más, el triunfo del No en el Plebiscito de Paz en Colombia, diciendo que Colombia sería como Venezuela, Santos entregó el país a los terroristas, el Santos-Castro-Chavismo es una amenaza para el país. Ninguna de estas frases es cierta, pero fueron profusamente utilizadas en los respectivos países por las redes sociales que se propagaron con una velocidad hasta hora no vista y reproducidas por los medios de comunicación de la prensa hablada y escrita. En estos tres casos, se da el triunfo de una posición basada en el engaño masivo a la población.

Importantes hombres y organizaciones especializadas se dedican a construir mentiras o verdades a medias, que los políticos o mejor, los politiqueros, propagan a través de las redes sociales para desprestigiar o destruir a los que consideran sus enemigos o contrincantes. La objetividad del debate de ideas, propuestas, programas y plataformas pierden validez, porque lo más importante es despertar emociones, odios e imaginarios que cautiven al elector.

¿La mentira como arma política nace recientemente?

La mentira en política no aparece solo hace dos años, se ha utilizado en muchos momentos y en muchos escenarios, desde la antigua Grecia. Los once principios de Joseph Goebbels en la Alemania hitleriana tienen plena aplicación, por ejemplo, en febrero 27 de 1933 el incendio del Reichstag en Berlín, es utilizado por Adolfo Hitler para construir una conspiración comunista, arrestar y ejecutar a muchos militantes y consolidarse como fuerza definitoria. Desde entonces, hasta nuestros días y seguramente días ulteriores, la mentira es un arma letal para desprestigiar a opositores y lograr ganar, con engaños, los favores del electorado o de la gente cuando se trata de minimizar errores o justificar las mismas mentiras.

El término post-verdad camufla la mentira, la suaviza y la hace sutil, para engañar al electorado. Es desafortunada la adopción de este término justamente por una universidad y aceptada por buena parte de la sociedad.

Fernando Buen Abad, en un artículo, Semiótica de las falacias: Ética entre la “Pos-verdad” y la “Plus-mentira”, 4 julio 2.017, sentencia claramente la “pos-verdad” y la “plus mentira” de manera que ya no habría rumores “falsos”… todo es “verdadero” mientras sirva para obturar la realidad. Se usa en muchos momentos y muchos escenarios, por ejemplo, para destruir el estado, para justificar la represión y los crímenes de todo tipo, para ocultar los fraudes electorales. La “pos-verdad” endiosa a los monopolios de guerra ideológica hacia públicos entrenados para no exigir “pruebas” ante ninguna calumnia, públicos entrenados para omitir “re-preguntas” y, especialmente, para no interrogarse a sí mismos sobre su información verdadera. Públicos entrenados para la “pereza mental”.

Con el advenimiento de internet, priman mensajes muy cortos, despojados de argumentos y en general, las gentes gustan de ellos, sin preocuparse de si son ciertos o falsos, los asumen como verdaderos. El público podrá estar predispuesto a recibir mentiras como verdades, justamente por esa pereza mental.

El columnista del periódico El Colombiano, Ramiro Velázquez, es de la opinión que “decir mentiras pequeñas va desensibilizando el cerebro, de modo que cada vez serán más grandes y la persona no siente nada, según el artículo en Nature Neuroscience, que ocupó muchas páginas en los diarios. Cuando una persona miente para obtener una ventaja, explicó Tali Sharot, autor senior, la amígdala produce un sentimiento negativo que limita el grado al que está presto a mentir. Pero esa respuesta se desvanece a medida que se dicen mentiras. Esto puede conducir a una pendiente resbaladiza donde pequeños actos de deshonestidad escalan hasta mentiras significativas. La realidad colombiana parece ser prueba”.

Podemos agregar el adagio “una mentira repetida mil veces, se vuelve una verdad”, seguramente en términos del 2018, en una post-verdad.

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