La plusvalía: el gran descubrimiento de Marx

247
Carlos Marx. Calarcá.

Alberto Maldonado Copello

Los economistas defensores del capitalismo hacen todo lo posible por ocultar la fuente de las ganancias mediante teorías engañosas y superficiales. En los medios de comunicación los capitalistas se presentan como fervientes promotores de la satisfacción de las necesidades de las personas, escondiendo su propósito principal: la obtención de la mayor ganancia posible.

En la sociedad capitalista mientras la gran mayoría obtiene sus ingresos como asalariados o trabajadores por cuenta propia, unos pocos obtienen ganancias de diferente naturaleza: ganancia de empresas productivas (industria, minería, transporte, servicios, etc.), ganancia de empresas comerciales, ganancias de entidades financieras, rentas de la propiedad de la tierra. ¿Qué es la ganancia? Respuesta de Paul Samuelson, premio Nobel de Economía: “La ganancia es el remanente de la venta de un producto después de que se han pagado los otros costos de los factores –salarios, intereses y rentas. Es el residuo que cuadra la ecuación”. No se necesita ser economista, ni premio Nobel de Economía para saber esto: cualquier capitalista, grande o pequeño, lo sabe. Pero, ¿de dónde surge este remanente? Respuesta: es una retribución al factor capital. La economía tradicional no investiga más allá de este punto, no le interesa.

El capitalismo

Marx muestra en El Capital que todas estas ganancias son partes de un fondo común, que denomina plusvalía y proviene de la explotación del trabajo asalariado. La plusvalía la producen los trabajadores y se la reparten los distintos capitalistas según leyes particulares mediante la competencia y el intercambio.

El capitalismo se parece a la esclavitud y a la servidumbre en que en estos sistemas de producción las clases dominantes extraen un producto excedente a los trabajadores directos. Tanto los esclavos como los siervos producen durante una parte de su tiempo los bienes que necesitan para su consumo y durante la parte de tiempo restante los productos para sus amos. El tiempo de trabajo dedicado a producir sus artículos de consumo se denomina tiempo necesario y el tiempo de trabajo para producir los bienes para las clases dominantes el tiempo de trabajo excedente. En estas sociedades es clara la posición que ocupan los seres humanos en la organización social y es evidente que la mayoría trabaja en beneficio de la minoría. Para dominar a la mayoría se recurre a la fuerza armada y a la ideología, principalmente a la religión.

Marx explica en El Capital que el modo capitalista de producción es también una organización económica en la cual una minoría extrae producto excedente, que proviene del trabajo excedente de la gran mayoría. Pero a diferencia de la esclavitud y la servidumbre, esto se realiza por medio de la compra y venta de las mercancías. Por tanto, la relación de explotación no es evidente como en los modos de producción anteriores. Pero detrás del proceso de cambio, mediante el dinero y el valor de las mercancías, existe una relación entre clases. Los trabajadores asalariados, propietarios de su fuerza de trabajo, que no son propietarios de medios de producción propios para elaborar mercancías, se ven obligados a vender su fuerza de trabajo a la otra clase, los capitalistas. Los capitalistas son poseedores de dinero y por tanto, de los medios de producción, que combinan con la fuerza de trabajo comprada para elaborar las mercancías.

El valor de la fuerza de trabajo es el valor de una canasta de bienes de consumo, que se determina según necesidades sociales y de acuerdo con la relación de fuerza entre las clases. Esta canasta contiene los bienes necesarios para que el trabajador esté en condiciones de trabajar y de mantener a sus hijos. Para los capitalistas, el valor de la fuerza de trabajo es un costo que deben reducir al mínimo posible. El trabajador vende su fuerza de trabajo por un valor que equivale a un determinado número de horas de trabajo, por ejemplo 4 horas, pero debe trabajar una jornada de 8 horas. Por tanto, el trabajador asalariado trabaja una parte del tiempo para producir el equivalente de su salario y otra parte para generar un producto excedente para el capitalista, el cual se lo apropia como un valor excedente, como un plusvalor.

Economía colombiana

En el capitalismo este proceso se da sin coacción directa; se produce por medio de una dominación indirecta, por la necesidad de vender la fuerza de trabajo para subsistir. Por esto, no se ve claramente la relación de explotación y es necesario investigarla. Si se miran los valores totales de la economía colombiana calculados por el DANE, se observará que del producto total de la economía los asalariados se quedan con más o menos la mitad (250 billones) y los capitalistas con la otra mitad (otros 250 millones): los 10 millones de trabajadores trabajan la mitad de su tiempo (trabajo necesario) para producir sus bienes de consumo y la otra mitad (trabajo excedente) para enriquecer a los capitalistas.

Esto aparece como si fuera el mundo de la libertad y de la igualdad, dado que tanto el capitalista y el trabajador asalariado son propietarios de sus mercancías y realizan un contrato aparentemente libre (son personas jurídicas iguales). Los economistas modernos sostienen que este mundo de la libertad y la igualdad es el mejor de los mundos posibles. No investigan de donde proviene la ganancia y simplemente afirman que cada factor de producción (tierra, trabajo, capital) tiene derecho a una remuneración por su productividad, sin preocuparse por investigar en qué consiste y de donde proviene. Es claro que la productividad del trabajador proviene de las capacidades de los trabajadores y de la organización y tecnología, pero ¿la supuesta productividad del capital entendido como medio de producción? Si un capitalista invierte en maquinaria, la recupera mediante la venta de los productos cargando la depreciación al valor de las mercancías, y lo mismo ocurre con los demás medios de producción. Pero el producto nuevo, el valor agregado, proviene solamente del trabajo nuevo realizado.

Economistas

Los economistas se inventan otras posibles explicaciones: el capitalista tiene derecho a una remuneración por su papel en el proceso de trabajo, o a una retribución por la abstención o sacrificio que hace al no consumir su dinero e invertirlo productivamente; o se obtiene la ganancia mediante la astucia y el engaño en el comercio. Todos estos son subterfugios para no investigar a fondo de donde proviene la plusvalía, bajo sus diferentes formas. El capitalista práctico sabe que obtiene ganancias y realiza todas las acciones necesarias para incrementarlas. El economista moderno se encarga de inventar teorías que oculten la plusvalía o simplemente deja de preguntarse de donde viene la ganancia, con el fin de no reconocer que la “democracia capitalista” es otra forma de explotación del trabajo ajeno.

247 Comentarios

  1. El valor de toda mercancía producida por métodos capitalistas,
    M, se expresa en la fórmula: M = A * (c ^a) * (v ^b). Entonces la plusvalía producida es : p = M – (c+v) = A * (c^a)*(v^b) – c – v .
    Por ejemplo, la producción de una tonelada de yuca seca en la costa atlántica colombiana tiene un valor total de
    ( https://www.unicordoba.edu.co/oldfiles/aplicacion_fun.pdf)

    M = 5.684 (MTPR ^0.8273316) (ENTREP^0.00883)(LABOR^0.12113)
    donde
    MTPR = Materia Prima, ENTREP = Servicios, LABOR = Trabajo.
    Entonces la plusvalía generada al producir una tonelada de yuca seca es
    p = 5.684 (MTPR ^0.8273316) (ENTREP^0.00883)(LABOR^0.12113) –
    (MTPR + ENTREP + LABOR)
    Numéricamente, si : MTPR = 90000, ENTREP = 34706, LABOR = 17000; el valor de una tonelada de yuca seca es M = 254602 y la plusvalía extraída es p = 112897. Esto corresponde a una cuota de plusvaía del 664% y a una cuota de ganancia del 186%

  2. El precio de costo de la mercancía es pc = c + v. Entonces se tiene :
    pc + p = A * (c ^a) * (v ^b); o equivalentemente
    p = A * (c ^a) * (v ^b) – pc.
    El total de trabajo no retribuido al obrero es
    k* p = k *[ A * (c ^a) * (v ^b) – pc]
    donde k es un factor entre 0 y 1. Para Marx k= 1; para el “economista moderno”, para los apologistas fanáticos del capitalismo k = 0. En mi opinión k es una variable aleatoria continua con una distribución de probabliidad del tipo beta de modo que 0.5 < k < 1.
    En el ejemplo anteriormente presentado de producción de yuca seca en la costa atlántica colombiana se tiene que el índice de explotación del trabajador está entre el 332% y el 664%.
    El proceso de creación del valor de una mercancía se describe mediante la siguiente ecuación diferencial:
    dV(t)/dt = B * (c ^a) * (v ^b) – r V(t)
    con la condición inicial V(0)=0.
    La solución es:
    V(t) = B*c^a*v^b * (1–exp(-r*t))/r
    Luego de una jornada de trabajo muy prolongada se obtiene;
    V(infinito) = M = B*c^a*v^b / r .

  3. Al volver a leer con màs detenimiento el primer capítulo del volumen 3 del Capital me doy cuenta que cometí un error en el anterior comentario. La condición inicial no es V(0) = 0; debe ser V(0) = c + v. Por tanto la solución correcta es:
    V(t) = (1/r)*B*c^a*v^b+exp(-r*t)*[c+v-(1/r)*B*c^a*v^b]
    Luego de una jornada de trabajo muy prolongada se obtiene;
    V(infinito) = M = B*c^a*v^b / r .
    Antes de la producción teníamos un valor-capital V(0) = c + v, despues del proceso de producción tenemos un valor total V(infinito) = A*c^a+v^b.
    Asumimos que V(infinito) > V(0) y por tanto el incremento de valor en la producción es V(infinito) – V(0) = A*c^a+v^b – (c + v).
    Tall incremento del valor corresponde a la plusvalía extraida:
    p = A*c^a+v^b – c – v.

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