La noticia de la Revolución Bolchevique en USA

142

Reacciones en Estados Unidos, hace cien años, ante la noticia de la Revolución Bolchevique

Juan E. Duque – Especial para VOZ

Los obreros, campesinos y soldados rusos, representados en los Sóviets —o Consejos Populares— organismos democráticos, muestra de la capacidad organizativa del pueblo en su lucha contra el despotismo, conquistaron el poder político el 7 de noviembre de 1917. John Reed, periodista estadounidense, poeta y ardiente revolucionario, partícipe y testigo ocular de este gran acontecimiento conocido como la Revolución Bolchevique, quien dos años después la narrara detalladamente en su famoso libro Diez días que estremecieron al mundo, fue el primero en dar a conocer este hecho al pueblo de Estados Unidos; desde Petrogrado, envió la noticia por cable al New York Call, diario socialista que la publicó el 22 de noviembre del mismo año.

Incluía el despacho una página de eventos acaecidos en días anteriores al 7 de noviembre y afirmaba: “los Consejos de las bases populares, de obreros, soldados y campesinos tienen el control; Lenin y Trostky sus líderes. Su programa: dar la tierra al campesino, socializar los recursos naturales y la industria, y llamar a una conferencia pro armisticio y paz democrática.”(1)

Ocurre esta revolución cuando el mundo se encontraba sumergido en el caos y el horror de la primera guerra mundial, contienda de encarnizadas batallas y estremecedora destrucción, entre países imperialistas que se despedazaban por el reparto del mundo. Alemania, los imperios austrohúngaro y turco-otomano combatían a los llamados aliados, Gran Bretaña, Estados Unidos, la Rusia zarista, Italia y Japón. Al otro lado del Atlántico, bajo el gobierno de Woodrow Wilson, Estados Unidos, enfrentado  interiormente a la militancia de sus clases trabajadoras que luchaban por mejores condiciones laborales y económicas, perseguía y encarcelaba sindicalistas, pacifistas, y líderes de derechos civiles; deportaba inmigrantes y coartaba toda manifestación democrática. En este contexto Estados Unidos recibía la noticia de la revolución bolchevique.

Acogida a la revolución

Philip S. Foner, prominente historiador marxista, en su compilación y estudio de diversos documentos publicados en Estados Unidos durante los años de 1917 y 1921, atestigua la bienvenida que a la Revolución Bolchevique daban amplios sectores desafiando las redadas de Palmer, la histeria anti roja, y en general, la política anti rusa y anti obrera del gobierno.

Foner incluye en su recopilación valiosos documentos —resoluciones, comentarios, demostraciones, comunicados procedentes de sindicatos y partidos políticos, de iglesias y de organizaciones, de periódicos y de prominentes políticos y personalidades, incluyendo afrodescendientes, judíos y otras nacionalidades— que evidencian, bajo diferentes perspectivas, una entusiasta acogida a la Revolución Bolchevique; pero no sólo en palabras, a su vez, demuestran que estos sectores exigían al gobierno de Estados Unidos tomar medidas cruciales, tales como, suspender el bloqueo económico a que sometió la nación rusa, suspender su apoyo militar y financiero a la Guardia Blanca que atacaba al Ejército Rojo, y detener en el Oriente la invasión a Siberia; los documentos señalan, asimismo, las mentiras, calumnias e increíbles historias de horror, con que los capitalistas y su prensa trataban de desprestigiar la revolución y sus dirigentes, pues ellos vieron en el poder de los sóviets una tétrica pesadilla: ¡sus próximos sepultureros! Consternados, los gobiernos de los países beligerantes, amigos y enemigos, se unieron en coro para difamar y desconocer la democracia popular recién instaurada en Rusia y, sobre todo, para tratar de asfixiarla sumergiéndola en ataques económicos, militares y mediáticos. Puede observarse, haciendo aquí un paréntesis, que estas mismas maniobras, apuntadas contra Rusia por los imperialistas hace cien años, las apuntan hoy día contra las revoluciones democráticas en Venezuela, Cuba y otras naciones.

Valiosos apoyos

Entre los primeros que manifestaron su apoyo a la revolución, figuran en los documentos Los amigos de la Revolución rusa, organización que, a los pocos días de conocida la noticia, convocó un mitin con el propósito de instar al Congreso a establecer relaciones amistosas con el nuevo poder democrático y adoptar su demanda por una paz inmediata, libre de anexiones e indemnizaciones. En otra manifestación, “Paz, paz, queremos la paz”, clamaban tres mil personas reunidas en el casino New Star en la avenida Park y la calle 107, en Nueva York, el 5 de diciembre, cuando el economista y activista político, doctor Issac Hourwich, ante la multitud, llamaba a la paz y exponía en su discurso las mentiras que diseminaba la prensa sobre la Revolución rusa. No por casualidad, el mismo grito resuena hoy día en Venezuela: ¡Queremos la paz, exclaman al unísono y repetidamente el gobierno y el pueblo venezolanos! Varios meses después, en 1918,  el Chicago Daily News, periódico popular, no de izquierda,  aunque cuestionaba el liderazgo bolchevique, abrazaba en un editorial el carácter de los sóviets: “Pero es absolutamente necesario para nosotros creer en los sóviets… de cada villa rusa vemos delegaciones asistiendo al sóviet provincial y de éste vemos delegados asistiendo al Congreso de Sóviets de toda Rusia, el sóviet se ha convertido en el sistema nervioso de comunicación y en el cerebro que decide en Rusia”. Hoy en día, cien años después, vemos en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente de Venezuela una réplica del espíritu democrático de los Sóviets. Así como los bolcheviques lideraron transfiriendo el poder a los Sóviets, así mismo el gobierno de Venezuela se fundamenta en el poder del pueblo, en el poder de los más amplios sectores sociales venezolanos, aglutinados en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente.

En particular, los partidos de izquierda estadounidenses, a pesar de sus discrepancias, sobre todo entre los que proponían adoptar a los sóviets en Estados Unidos y los que afirmaban que éstos no encajaban en las condiciones de esta nación, espontáneamente se unieron en bloque olvidando las diferencias, aunque sólo temporalmente, y reconocieron la organización más democrática que surgía de la ardua lucha por establecer un nuevo orden social: los Sóviets o Consejos Populares.

(1) Nota: Todas las citas tomadas de: Philip S. Foner, La Revolución Bolchevique. Su impacto sobre los radicales, liberales y el movimiento obrero estadounidenses. Edición centenario. Nueva York: International Publishers, 2017.

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