La memoria histórica, una trinchera en disputa

129
Niña Barí en la comunidad Chubacbarina, Catatumbo, Norte de Santander. Foto Camilo Ara, Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica.

La construcción de un relato de nación que incorpore todas las voces es el reto de los sectores democráticos ante el intento del uribismo por distorsionar la verdad sobre el conflicto

Roberto Amorebieta
@amorebieta7 

El gobierno por fin ha definido a Darío Acevedo Carmona como nuevo director del Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica, CNMH. Poniendo en evidencia la profunda ausencia de cuadros políticos de alto nivel en el uribismo, ha tardado casi seis meses en escoger a un profesor de la Universidad Nacional –sede Medellín– quien, a diferencia de los anteriores candidatos al cargo, al parecer sí tiene títulos académicos. El problema es que el nuevo director se ha hecho célebre, a través de publicaciones en Twitter y de su columna semanal en El Espectador, por defender la vieja idea uribista de que en Colombia no ha habido un conflicto armado interno sino una amenaza terrorista.

El CNMH es un centro de investigación adscrito al Gobierno nacional encargado de recopilar la memoria histórica del conflicto. Cumple una tarea muy importante porque constituye, desde una perspectiva académica, rigurosa y desapasionada, la base del componente de Verdad que tiene el Acuerdo de Paz. La objetividad de sus investigaciones debe ser la garantía de que las víctimas puedan ser reivindicadas desde el relato, como garantía de que serán reparadas también desde lo material. En otras palabras, la verdad histórica del conflicto es una condición necesaria, aunque no suficiente, para que haya justicia, reparación y no repetición de los hechos de la guerra.

Falla constitucional

Como lo advierte el profesor Rodrigo Uprimny, una falla de ingeniería constitucional es el origen del problema. La norma establece que el director del CNMH sea nombrado por el presidente de la República, convirtiendo la entidad en una dependencia directa del gobierno de turno, cuando se espera que la memoria histórica no esté sometida a los vaivenes electorales y esté bajo la responsabilidad de un ente público pero independiente.

El primer director, el profesor Gonzalo Sánchez, es una autoridad internacional en el tema de memoria histórica y su nombre nunca despertó susceptibilidades, pero ahora, el nuevo gobierno de la Seguridad Democrática ha tenido problemas para encontrar una persona que genere el mismo consenso.

Nombrar al frente del CNMH a una persona con la perspectiva histórica que defiende el nuevo director, es una decisión ilegal, inconveniente y contraproducente para el propio establecimiento.

Es ilegal porque la Ley 1448 de 2011 que crea el CNMH define que sus funciones están relacionadas con la recopilación de “la memoria histórica del conflicto en Colombia”. Un director que cree que no ha existido conflicto no encaja en el propio perfil que define la Ley. Nombrarle allí iría contra el espíritu de la Ley, la Constitución y el Acuerdo de Paz.

Es inconveniente porque no hay garantías de que el relato histórico que se elabore desde un CNMH uribista incorpore la totalidad de los testimonios de las víctimas, en especial las del Estado que son la mayoría. Una entidad como el CNMH debe producir documentos que promuevan la reconciliación basada en la verdad histórica, no que oculten las atrocidades de un bando y exacerben las del otro con el propósito de perpetuar el odio como la polarización.

Es contraproducente para el establecimiento porque, como lo ha advertido Humberto de la Calle en El Espectador, el reconocimiento legal de la existencia del conflicto hace que en los hechos de guerra opere el Derecho Internacional Humanitario (DIH) –el derecho de la guerra– y no el derecho de los derechos humanos –el de la paz–. Es decir, reconocer el conflicto implica, por ejemplo, que los bombardeos o las emboscadas contra la guerrilla sean legales porque se presentan en el marco de un conflicto armado interno. De lo contrario, los militares o policías que participaron en aquellas operaciones podrían ser acusados internacionalmente por crímenes contra la humanidad. De nuevo vemos al uribismo presumiendo de defender el honor de los militares cuando lo que hace les condena, mientras los actos de Uribe –principal responsable político– continúan en la impunidad.

Lo que se pone en evidencia aquí no es solo una puja burocrática en una entidad cualquiera del Estado, sino la importancia que el uribismo reconoce al control sobre la memoria histórica.

Narrativa subalterna

Recordemos que la memoria histórica no es la historia oficial. Es la recopilación de los testimonios de los vencidos, de quienes han sufrido anónimamente los crueles efectos de la guerra, de quienes nunca son citados en los libros de historia. No es la versión de los vencedores sino de quienes han sido invisibilizados. No es una sucesión de gestas heroicas que sirven para construir un mito de nación, sino la narrativa subalterna que permite enriquecer el relato nacional desde la inclusión de los ausentes.

Parte de las transformaciones que actualmente está sufriendo la sociedad colombiana pasan por un nuevo talante de las juventudes, muy conectado con las tecnologías de la información y escéptico frente a las verdades oficiales. Hoy es más difícil engañar a la gente y asustarla con amenazas engrandecidas por la histeria mediática. Álvaro Uribe se lamentaba hace poco de la imagen que de él pudiesen hacerse las nuevas generaciones.

Por ello, se hace crucial que el futuro relato de nación encaje en la versión acomodada e interesada de los dueños del poder. Necesitan tomarse el CNMH por asalto. Ello, por supuesto, es un reto para los sectores populares y democráticos, para las víctimas del conflicto y para los que creemos en la reconciliación. Hay que continuar la lucha por la construcción de una memoria histórica que incorpore todas las voces y nos permita pasar la página desde el reconocimiento de la verdad plena de lo que realmente sucedió en el conflicto armado en Colombia. No solo por las víctimas, en especial por nuestros hijos e hijas, para que algo así nunca más vuelva a suceder.

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