La mala distribución del ingreso: ¿Un gran atraso?

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Desde sus hogares millones de personas se rebuscan el sustento diario. Foto J.C.H.

Alberto Maldonado Copello

En columna de El Tiempo el domingo 5 de agosto de 2018 con el título de “El gran atraso de Colombia”, José Antonio Ocampo1 señala que la administración Duque hereda algunas condiciones sociales positivas, pero también una mala distribución del ingreso. Recuerda que se trata de un área donde los indicadores colombianos figuran entre los peores del mundo y que por tanto debería ser una prioridad para el gobierno de Duque.

El ingreso del 10 por ciento más rico supera cuatro veces el del 40 por ciento más pobre, nivel que es el doble de los de Argentina y Uruguay y cuatro veces el normal en los países europeos con una buena distribución del ingreso. De otra parte, el 1 por ciento más rico concentra el 21% del ingreso, uno de los peores registros del mundo. Afirma que los indicadores sobre distribución de la riqueza son aún más malos que los de distribución del ingreso.

La mejoría en disminuir la desigualdad exige, según Ocampo, un gasto público social y un sistema tributario más redistributivos, dado que los impuestos están por debajo de los promedios de América Latina y de la OCDE, lo mismo que el gasto público social. Un informe de la Cepal mostró que el 10 por ciento más rico de la población colombiana paga como impuestos una proporción mucho menor de sus ingresos que en América Latina. Hace énfasis en la necesidad de un gran salto en materia de desarrollo rural porque la pobreza es mucho mayor en esta zona.

El análisis de Ocampo es típico de un enfoque común en el tratamiento de la desigualdad de ingresos en Colombia que se caracteriza por denunciar los síntomas, pero eludir las causas de fondo. Ocampo no presenta explicación alguna sobre las causas de la desigualdad de ingresos y de riqueza; por las propuestas se infiere que considera que la causa es la deficiente regulación y actuación del Estado. Para nada reconoce que hay una desigualdad estructural en cuanto a la propiedad de los medios de producción y a la función que cumplen dentro del proceso de producción, unos como capitalistas y otros como asalariados. Para Ocampo no hay problemas en el modelo de organización social existente, el problema es que el Estado no actúa adecuadamente para corregir las fallas.

La afirmación de Ocampo “el gran fracaso de Colombia” refiriéndose a la gran desigualdad en la distribución del ingreso es imprecisa y engañosa. En primer lugar, se refiere a Colombia como si la sociedad fuera algo uniforme y homogéneo, desconociendo la existencia de clases y grupos sociales en conflicto. En segundo lugar, considera un fracaso lo que realmente es el triunfo de un pequeño grupo de colombianos, ese 1% que concentra el 21% del total de los ingresos, y su modelo neoliberal. El fracaso es para la gran mayoría de trabajadores asalariados y por cuenta propia que deben repartirse entre millones la parte más pequeña del producto nacional.

Todo indica que el “fracaso” continuará, considerando que Duque ni siquiera mencionó el tema de la desigualdad de ingresos y riqueza en su programa de gobierno y que conformó su gabinete claramente al servicio de los grandes capitalistas, con mayoría de representantes de los gremios en su gabinete, que tiene como guía su documento de propuestas2 al nuevo presidente, donde proponen eliminar subsidios a los pobres y bajar impuestos a los ricos, entre otras, que acentuarán la mala distribución del ingreso

1. http://www.eltiempo.com/opinion/columnistas/jose-antonio-ocampo/el-gran-atraso-de-colombia-jose-antonio-ocampo-251966

2. http://www.cgn.org.co/reactivacion-economica-2018-2022-propuestas-del-cgn-para-el-presidente-duque-y-su-equipo

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