La Justicia Especial de Paz

207

En el marco de la campaña electoral, como lo recordó el presidente Juan Manuel Santos, fueron posesionados los magistrados del Tribunal Especial de Paz, que hacen parte de las tres salas que lo integran: Sala de Reconocimiento de la Verdad, Responsabilidad y determinación de los Hechos y Conductas, la Sala de Definición de las Situaciones Jurídicas y la Sala de Amnistía o Indulto. Debido a razones personales unos pocos magistrados no se posesionaron.

El presidente Santos en su intervención explicó que la Justicia Especial de Paz fue diseñada para que primen la verdad y la justicia con base a las evidencias y pruebas que se logren recaudar en cada situación. Los magistrados conocerán de las conductas irregulares y delictivas cometidas con ocasión o en relación con el conflicto armado, que comprometan a miembros de la Fuerza Pública y agentes del Estado, guerrilleros y civiles que se sometan a ella, si queda en firme la absurda decisión  del Congreso de la República, incluida por Cambio Radical, que en caso de ser ratificada por la Corte Constitucional, los “terceros” no podrán ser llamados por la jurisdicción especial sino a petición de quien se quiera someter a ella.

“Las víctimas quieren más verdad que ver a sus victimarios tras las rejas”, dijo el mandatario. Y tiene la razón, estas han sido generosas y distan mucho del ánimo vengativo y de retaliación de la extrema derecha que quiere llevar a los jefes de las FARC a la prisión y anular toda posibilidad de su participación política. Es un acto político negativo, visceral, que no se corresponde con el espíritu de la JEP que fue construida con la concepción de la justicia restaurativa y no punitiva.

El presidente Santos reconoció que en un proceso de paz siempre se dan amnistías e indultos. Con mayor razón, decimos nosotros, si el conflicto se originó en causas políticas y sociales como fue el caso colombiano. Peor aun, si el Estado fue violento en su relación con la sociedad, en particular contra sus opositores, y si en las estadísticas fue el mayor depredador de los derechos humanos y del derecho internacional humanitario.

La verdad es fundamental para el logro de los fines del sistema de la Justicia Especial de Paz. Sin ella no se lograrán los objetivos, por ende será un soporte la Comisión de la Verdad que funcionará con autonomía en el esclarecimiento de las causas y los responsables de actos graves en el conflicto. El padre Francisco de Roux, presidente de la Comisión para el Esclarecimiento de la Verdad, la Convivencia y la No Repetición, explicó en este semanario, en la edición pasada, que la JEP, la Unidad de Búsqueda de Personas Desaparecidas y la Comisión de la Verdad, le dan sentido a la justicia transicional. Cada una tiene sus funciones y actúa con autonomía, pero en el fondo trabajan en los mismos propósitos de verdad, justicia, reparación y no repetición.

En la reunión de los dirigentes del partido de la FARC con el Secretario General de la ONU, Antonio Guterres, este recibió amplia información de las inconsistencias que presentan varias modificaciones que en el Congreso le introdujeron algunos de sus miembros al Acuerdo Final de La Habana. En el caso de la JEP, dijo Iván Márquez: “(…)fue deformada en los debates del Legislativo, al punto que la Ley Estatutaria aprobada, es una trampa para colocar a los insurgentes en manos de la jurisdicción ordinaria, a fin de someterlos al Derecho Penal del Enemigo”.

Hay que esperar el trabajo arduo de los magistrados que será obstaculizado por la extrema derecha y el fiscal Néstor Humberto Martínez, que no simpatiza con los acuerdos de paz. Pertenece al partido Cambio Radical de Germán Vargas Lleras, el que más presionó cambios en la JEP y el que más congresistas y funcionarios tiene en la cárcel por corrupción y parapolítica. Las fuerzas democráticas deben respaldar el trabajo pluralista y democrático de la Justicia Especial de Paz, en función de las víctimas y de la verdad histórica sobre las razones de un conflicto que no puede repetirse.  Para que esta juegue su papel restaurativo sin caer en decisiones de venganza punitiva.

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