La guerra hostiga a comunidades

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Casa de refugio humanitario en Lejanías. Foto Bibiana Ramírez.

En el nordeste antioqueño crean casas de refugio humanitario para proteger la vida ante los riesgos que se avecinan para las comunidades

Bibiana Ramírez – Agencia Prensa Rural
@bibianarm 

Desde que las FARC-EP dejaron de existir en el nordeste como grupo armado, hace dos años, el conflicto se ha recrudecido, ya son más grupos los que se disputan el territorio, sobre todo los que surgieron de la desmovilización de las AUC y que se han fortalecido en regiones donde antes no podían entrar y donde también el ELN sigue operando como grupo guerrillero.

Las comunidades celebran que desde esos dos años no hay bombardeos ni enfrentamientos armados, pero se preocupan por las nuevas formas de hostigamiento que foráneos están aplicando. El miedo de hoy está desarticulando toda posibilidad de organización, de trabajo comunitario porque ya todos desconfían o porque son amenazados.

La alerta temprana Nº 052 de junio de 2018, emitida por la Defensoría del Pueblo, dice que 31.333 habitantes de Remedios y 41.711 habitantes de Segovia están en situación de riesgo. “A través de la intimidación y el ejercicio de la violencia, los grupos armados ilegales pretenden preservar el poder político y económico instalado durante la guerra que impide la denuncia y la desobediencia de la población civil, ante la posibilidad del desplazamiento forzado o la muerte, como medidas de retaliación y aleccionamiento”, relata el documento.

Entre enero y marzo de 2018 ocurrieron 17 asesinatos en Remedios y Segovia según el Departamento de Policía de Antioquia. “Llama la atención que en ninguno de los casos la Policía Departamental identifica los grupos armados ilegales como los presuntos autores, ni alude al conflicto armado como la posible causa de las muertes, limitándose a señalar que el 52,64 % de los casos ocurrió por venganza, el 29,41 % por intolerancia social y con un 5,88 % para cada una de las siguientes causas posibles: problemas personales, ajuste ilegal de cuentas, problemas personales y abuso sexual”, afirma la alerta temprana.

El último acontecimiento sucedió el 12 de agosto en la vereda Lejanías, de Remedios, donde tres hombres armados sacaron de la casa a Hernán Adrián Zapata y lo asesinaron. Vendía elementos para el hogar, contaba con el permiso de la junta de acción comunal para realizar dicha actividad y apenas llevaba ocho días en la vereda, así lo denunció la Corporación de acción humanitaria por la paz y la convivencia del Nordeste antioqueño, Cahucopana.

Queda demostrado que en las veredas de estos municipios hay restricción a la vida cotidiana de las comunidades y que están sometidas a los intereses y el control de los grupos armados.

Riesgos para las comunidades

Décadas atrás los campesinos del nordeste tuvieron que huir de la guerra, aguantar hambre, reinventarse cada día, ver morir a familiares y amigos. Con la esperanza de que esa guerra terminaría, algunos retornaron a sus tierras y empezaron nuevamente a organizar sus vidas. Antes corrían hacia el monte mientras pasaba todo, ahora ya no hay tiempo para esconderse porque las tácticas de esa guerra han cambiado.

Varias personas de diferentes veredas hacen un panorama de lo que les toca vivir diariamente y de los miedos a los que se enfrentan, por ejemplo el de decir sus nombres.

El Ejército y la Policía que llegaron con el ETCR no se han ganado la confianza de los habitantes de Carrizal. Desconfían de los grupos de Whatsapp que tienen para recibir denuncias. El Ejército hace seguimiento con drones a personas que están a cinco minutos del caserío. Hay sobrevuelos de helicópteros que lanzan luces de bengala. Realizan actividades cívico militares que ponen en riesgo a la población porque todavía hay presencia de ELN.

“Las organizaciones hemos tenido que reducir la influencia en las comunidades. Carrizal era un ejemplo organizativo y hoy no es el 30% de lo que era. Hay consumo excesivo de droga y alcohol. Se permite que militares de civil y con armas entren a fiestas”, dice un campesino y agrega que muchos desconocidos van a preguntar por el ETCR o personas de allí.

En la vereda Camelias, después de las nueve de la noche nadie se puede mover en moto por la restricción que tiene el ELN. Se pasean hombres de negro, armados y encapuchados.

Necesidades insatisfechas

Las comunidades tuvieron la esperanza de ver llegar la inversión social. Por ejemplo el tema de los planes de desarrollo con enfoque territorial se convirtieron en un negocio para el Estado. “Nos hacían reuniones, nos ponían a firmar y ahí legalizaban la plata. Van dos años trayendo gallinas y esas gallinas no han llegado, se las comió el zorro de Cañaveral a Carrizal”. Las vías no han mejorado y es como un chiste ver una carretera de treinta kilómetros y pavimentados cuarenta metros, por lo que la alcaldía de Remedios hizo fiesta y lo promocionó como la gran obra de infraestructura.

En Camelias hace dos años están pidiendo un profesor para 18 niños de primaria. La alcaldesa se comprometió y la Gobernación de Antioquia también, pero aún tienen que caminar una hora y media para llegar a Plaza Nueva donde está la escuela, lo que ha generado deserción escolar.

Hace seis meses pusieron la energía en algunas veredas. De luz están pagando entre 80 y 150 mil pesos. El que se atrasa un mes le llega 1 millón 700 mil pesos, cobrando la conexión y el contador. No les entregan el recibo personalmente sino que envían el paquete de recibos a un local comercial y ahí los dejan, a otros les llega a veredas distintas. Tampoco saben si es en Segovia o Remedios el pago, pues a una persona le puede llegar en los dos municipios. No hay una verdadera asesoría por parte de Empresas Públicas de Medellín que son las que prestan el servicio. No les han explicado cómo se lee la factura, sólo paguen, si no se las cortan y los endeudan.

“A una casa le cobran como a una cantina. Por tener un bombillo, una nevera y un televisor llegan 300 mil pesos de cuenta. Tanto que deseábamos tener la energía pero ahora es un problema más grande teniéndola. Hay comunidades que le están diciendo a EPM que la retiren y que se lleven sus cables porque no pueden pagar lo que les cobran”. Además deben pagar alumbrado público que no existe, recolección de basura cuando nunca entra un carro y otros cobros.

Casas de refugio humanitario de paso

Ante todo este panorama que no es muy alentador, Cahucopana creó casas de refugio humanitario de paso como mecanismo alternativo y preventivo para salvaguardar la vida y la integridad de las comunidades minero campesinas ante una crisis humanitaria que pone en alto nivel de riesgo a los habitantes de Remedios y Segovia.

Además crearon una granja integral de aprendizaje para recuperar el arraigo con la tierra y lo más importante, volver a sembrar alimento. “Es un momento en que tenemos que sembrar comida, porque se vienen tiempos duros. Hay que revivir los colectivos para volver a la solidaridad, para saber qué le pasa al vecino y en qué le puedo ayudar. Estamos débiles, pero hemos sobrevivido porque nos hemos organizado”, dice Gerardo Acero, líder de Cahucopana.

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